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Yannai . 

Ma hzor Yannai 



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MAHZOR YANNAI 



TEXTS AND STUDIES OF THE JEWISH 
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA 



Vol. I-II. Geonica by Louis Ginzberg. 

I, the Geonim and Their Halakic Writings; 

II, Genizah Studies, N. Y., 1909, 8°, xii +210, 
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by Joseph Ben Meir Ibn Zabara. Edited by 
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+ 197 + vii pp $2.00 

Vol. V. Saadia's Polemic against Hiwi Al-Balkhi. By 
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Vol. VI. Mahzor Yannai. A Liturgical Work of the 
Vllth Century, edited from Genizah fragments, 
with notes and introduction by Israel Davidson, 
and with additional notes by Louis Ginzberg. 
N. Y., 1919, 8°, xlix+55 + ivpp .... $2.00 




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MAHZOR YANNAI, WRITING OF THE XITH CENTURY 

Underneath Aquila's Greek Translation of the Bible in a Vlth century MS. 
(From Taylor's "Cairo Genizah Palimpsests") 



^ %xti^ and &tttliie0 of tfie \^ DEC 

letoi0i) ^l^eoloffical &eminarp ot ^mttlca 

Vol. VI \^ iC, 



MAHZOR VaNNAI 

A Liturgical Work of the Vllth Century 

EDITED FROM 
GENIZAH FRAGMENTS 



WHH NOTES AND INTRODUCTION 

ISRAEL DAVIDSON 

PROFESSOR OF MEDIAEVAL HEBREW LITERATURE 
JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA 

and additional notes by 
Louis Ginzberg 

PROFESSOR OF TALMUD JEWISH THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY OF AMERICA 



NEW YORK 

THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

OF AMERICA 

1919 



THE-PLIMPTON- PRE3S 
MORWOOD-MASS-a-S -A 



TO THE MEMORY OF 

WOLF HEIDENHEIM 

(1757-1832) 

Foremost critical expounder of the 

Jewish liturgy. 



PREFACE 

The texts, edited for the first time in this 
volume, represent the remains of a large work of 
religious poetry, composed for every Sabbath of 
the year and grouped about the weekly portions 
of the Pentateuch, according to the divisions of 
the Triennial Cycle. The importance of these 
compositions for the history of mediaeval Jewish 
liturgy lies not only in their being the residue of a 
work lost for many centuries and up to recent times 
entirely unknown, but also in the fact, that through 
them we are able to get a clearer idea of the rise 
and the development of the liturgical poetry 
known as Piyyut. Yannai, the author of these 
religious poems, flourished in the seventh century 
and is, therefore, next to Yose ben Yose, the oldest 
Payyetan. He is also reputed to have been the 
teacher of Kalir, the best known of all mediaeval 
liturgists. 

Like so many other literary treasures brought 
to light in recent times, these poems were found 
in the Cairo Genizah, discovered by Dr. Schechter. 
Facsimiles of these manuscripts, which happened 
to be palimpsests, were published as long ago as 
1897 and 1900 by two well-known English scholars, 
F. Crawford Burkitt and Charles Taylor. Owing, 
however, to the fact that the scholarly world was 
interested mainly in the lower writing of the 



VI PREFACE 

manuscripts which comprised parts of Aquila's 
Greek translations of the Bible, the nature of the 
upper writing in Hebrew and the identity of the 
author were not recognized until now. 

In identifying and presenting these Hebrew 
texts to the public, I not only experience the 
pleasure of contributing an important page to 
the history of Jewish literature, but I also have 
the feeling that it will serve as a striking illus- 
tration of the great importance of the Genizah 
as a source for Jewish history and literature. 

A generation has nearly gone by since the Cairo 
Genizah was rescued from oblivion. And though 
many great contributions to Jewish lore were 
made by the discoverer of the Genizah and his 
followers, still no scientific body or individual 
Maecenas has as yet appeared, willing to make the 
treasures of the Genizah accessible to the scholarly 
world at large. Well cared for as these manu- 
scripts are in the great libraries of England, their 
usefulness is nevertheless very limited as long as 
they remain shelved. Innumerable documents 
of the greatest importance in all departments 
of Jewish literature are waiting to be deciphered, 
elucidated and published. If this vast mass of 
documents were made accessible so that scholars 
the world over could consult them in their studies, 
Jewish historiography would be revolutionized; 
many obscure periods would be illumined and 
many difficulties solved. Let this volume serve 
as an illustration. If the two English scholars 
had not published the facsimiles, the Mahzor of 



PREFACE VII 

Yannai would very likely have remained unknown 
for many more years to come. 

Of course it would be too sanguine on the part 
of any individual investigator to entertain the 
hope, that by his own efforts he could bring about 
a wide-spread interest in this field of inquiry. 
But if by any chance, this modest contribution 
should, in the least way, help towards arousing 
a greater interest in the Genizah MSS. on the part 
of our leaders in Jewry, the editor would feel more 
than amply rewarded for his labors. 

Aside from the texts of the palimpsests I have 
incorporated in this volume a poem of Yannai 
from the valuable collection of Genizah MSS. in 
the library of Mr. E. N. Adler, who very gener- 
ously placed the original manuscript at my dis- 
posal. 

Through the kind offices of Dr. L. D. Barnett I 
obtained a photograph of the British Museum 
MS., Or. 6197, to which Dr. A. Marmorstein called 
my attention. The photograph reached me when 
the Hebrew part of this volume was already in 
type, but as it turned out to be only an incom- 
plete text of the poem printed below on pages 41 
and 42, I was able to embody the variants in a 
supplementary note on page 42. 

In addition to the Genizah fragments it was also 
deemed advisable to gather here the few liturgical 
compositions of Yannai which have already been 
published previously. For the text of the Kerobah 
of the Great Sabbath use has been made not only 
of the Sabionetta and Venice editions, but also 



Vlll PREFACE 

of three MSS. in the Jewish Theological Seminary. 
One is the Mahzor MS. described by H. Gross in 
the Zeitschrift fiir Hehrdische Bibliographie, XI, 169 
et seq. which will be designated as MS. A; the 
second is a MS. of Yozerot, designated as MS. B; 
and the third, designated as MS. C, is a Mahzor 
bearing the date of 1279 in the colophon. 

I take this opportunity of thanking my friend 
and colleague, Professor Alexander Marx, for 
calling my attention to these MSS., as well as for 
giving me a number of valuable suggestions and 
references. To my friend and colleague. Professor 
Louis Ginzberg, I am under even greater obligation 
for having enriched this volume with his vast 
erudition, in the form of additional notes to the 
text. I am also indebted to Mr. I. George Dob- 
sevage for his kind services in seeing the book 
through the press. In conclusion I wish to thank 
Dr. Cyrus Adler and the other members of the 
Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America for having made this publi- 
cation possible. 

I. D. 

New York, March 13, 1919. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface v 

Introduction 

1. Yannai in Modern Research ix 

2. The Rise of the Didactic Piyyut xiv 

3. The Cryptic Language of the Piyyut xix 

4. Yannai's Liturgical Compositions as a Source for 

Halaka xx 

5. Yannai's Mahzor and the Triennial Cycle xxi 

6. The Causes of the Neglect of Yannai's Com- 

positions xxiv 

7. Yannai and Kalir xxv 

8. The Structure of Yannai's Kerobot xxvi 

9. Yannai's Kerobah for the Great Sabbath xxxiv 

10. The Fragments of Mahzor Yannai xxxviii 

11. The Contents, Diction and Orthography of the 

Fragments xl 

12. Texts Relating to Tannai, Arranged Chronolo- 

gically xliii 

Hebrew Texts and Notes i-iv and 1-55 



INTRODUCTION 

I. Tannai in Modern Research 

Few men in Jewish literature have met with a 
fate such as befell the ancient Payyetan Yannai. 
Though undoubtedly of considerable prominence 
in his own day, and though well known and held 
in great esteem even as late as the tenth century,^ 
his works seem to have passed out of use in very 
early times, so that he became merely a name. 
In the course of centuries even his name disap- 
peared from the annals of Jewish history, and we 
look in vain for any record concerning him in the 
writings of the mediaeval chroniclers such as 
Sherira Gaon, Abraham b. David, Zacuto and 
Others. It is only within the last century that 
his name was rescued from oblivion. 

It was Rapoport who first drew attention to 
the record of an ancient Payyetan by the name of 
Yannai found in the Shibhale Halleket of Zede- 
kiah b. Abraham Anaw.^ In that ritual code, 
which was still in manuscript at that time, he 
found a responsum of R. Gershom, where Yannai 
is mentioned before Kalir and is described as 
"one of the ancient sages who composed Kerobot 
for every order of the year." ^ "But who is this 

* Comp. below, sect. 12, H. 

2 In his Biography of Kalir, note 19 (y*m33 1829, ill). 

' Comp. below, sect. 12, H. 



X MAHZOR YANNAI 

Yannal," exclaimed Rapoport, "and where else 
is he mentioned?" ^ 

A dozen years later,^ while engaged in his con- 
troversy with Luzzatto about the time and 
place of Kalir, Rapoport brought forth the ad- 
ditional information given him by Zunz, that in 
a certain liturgical manuscript, a note, emanating 
perhaps from Ephraim of Bonn, was added to the 
Kerobah D^nom nt^D ^21k, recited on the *' Great 
Sabbath," saying, that it was the composition of 
Yannai, the teacher of Kalir.^ As to the poem 
itself, Zunz pointed out that it was written in 
rime and had the alphabet and the name •'^r in 
acrostic.^ Some time later, Luzzatto made the 
assertion that the piyyut mubsn wdi an Ti<, which is 
printed in some rituals by itself and in others 
together with D^nam ntss "ji^, is likewise the com- 
position of Yannai.^ This assertion, based on 
internal evidence,^ was later corroborated by 
Zunz with evidence from an old manuscript, 
where this poem is clearly ascribed to Yannai. ^° 

-* Biog. of Kalir, be. cit. ^ nonona, VI (1841), 25. 

^ Comp. below, sect. 12, I. 

' n'D, ibid.; Literaturgeschichte, 28. 

8 ■':N"'7Nt2"'N mmo, Leghorn, 1856, 10. 

^ The evidence is that the pi'?"'D, or completing stanza, of 
the Kerobah DTiom nus "jin. beginning n"?""? yitb rx "3 P3i fits 
in well with the refrain rb'bT\ "sna "HM of the Piyyut d^dj an tn. 
Rapoport upheld Luzzatto in this opinion (tjoh 1863, 23). 
In my article on Yannai (J. Q. R., New Series, I, 107, 
note 8), 1 doubted Yannai's authorship of this poem. But 
I shall show later that there can be no doubt on this subject. 
The one is an integral part of the other. 

^° Litg. 28, note 4. 



INTRODUCTION XI 

All this added information, however, was not 
sufficient to establish definitely the time and place 
of Yannai. And although Rapoport justly de- 
tected the influence of Palestine in the peculiar 
way in which the name of Yannai was spelt in 
the acrostic," he nevertheless clung to his theory 
that Kalir, and hence his teacher Yannai, flourished 
in Italy sometime during the second half of the 
tenth century.^2 

In 1853, however, it was pointed out by Dukes, 
that Yannai was mentioned by Jehudi b. Sheshet, 
a pupil of Dunash b. Labrat; ^^ and in 1879 
Harkavy brought to light the fact that Kirkisani, 
the Karaite contemporary of Saadia Gaon, men- 
tioned Yannai in his book of laws." Later on he 
found two other passages in the same work of 
Kirljiisani where Yannai is mentioned,^^ and in 
]n3KmsD Saadia himself makes mention of our 
poet.^^ Again, in a fragment of an anonymous 
work on the art of poetry, coming from the time 
of Saadia, published by the late Doctor Schechter, 
"the poetic compositions of the celebrated Yan- 
nai" are cited as an example of rimed prose. ^^ 
In another composition of similar antiquity an 

" That is '^r, not 'xr. Cf. n^s VI, 26. 

12 n^a, VI, 19, §8: "n^omn n^Vd^ns n^y^n n't iny lo^an ^^r 'n^. 

13 D"'anpt>n:, Hannover, 1853, 2. Comp. also below, sect. 
12, E. 

1^ Tjon, vol. 23, p. 359. Comp. also below, sect. 12, A. 
15 n-'nyo an inar, pp. 107-108. Comp. below, sect. 12, B, C. 
^® Ibid., p. 51; also below, sect. 12, D. 
^' Comp. below, sect. 12, G. 



Xll MAHZORYANNAI 

anonymous poet eulogizes the head of the acad- 
emy by saying that **the law of God was music to 
him and Yannai and Kalir were his garden and 
palace." ^^ 

All these data point to a much earlier period 
than the tenth century and from the fact that 
Kirkisani asserts that Anan, the founder of Kara- 
ism, made use of Yannai's liturgy cxrniXTn) as a 
source for his Halaka/^ it has become the ac- 
cepted opinion that Yannai must have flourished 
not later than the second half of the seventh 
century.^" 

Incidentally, this remark of Kirkisani carried 
with it also the implication that Yannai had 
composed an independent liturgical work, as the 
expression •'«:"' fiiXTn could not be taken in any 
other sense. This assumption gained strength 
from an ancient Book List, found in the Genizah 
and published by Poznansky in 1903, for in that 
list a book by the name of ^Nrn^KTn is actually 
recorded. 2^ On the other hand, the two new 
poems ascribed to Yannai which were discovered 

^^ Ibid., F. According to Mann (J. Q. R., New Series, IX, 
pp. 154-155) Yannai is mentioned at the very beginning of 
this fragment, taking the expression '^3'' *'DST {Saadyana, p. 66, 
1. i) as a poetical metaphor for 'wmitn. 

13 Ibid., B, C. 

20 Comp. Harkavy n'-nyo an inar 106; Brody (Jewish En- 
cyc, XII, 586) puts him as early as the first half of the 
seventh century. Elbogen {Der jud. Gottesdienst, 309) places 
him circa 700. 

21 J. Q. R., XV, 77, No. 12. 



INTRODUCTION XIII 

by Wertheimer and published by him in 1901,22 
even if genuine, point only to the possible ex- 
istence of other compositions by Yannai, but are 
no proof in themselves of the existence of a dis- 
tinct and comprehensive liturgical work by that 
ancient poet. But in 1910 it was my good for- 
tune to discover a fragment which actually con- 
tained quotations from Mahzor Yannai. ^^ This 
fragment, in addition to giving us the beginnings 
of four unknown poems by Yannai,-^ established 
the fact beyond any doubt that at one time there 
existed a Mahzor of Yannai. 

Withal, our information in regard to this Mahzor 
remained scant. There was no indication either 
of its extent or its nature. The statement of 
Rabbi Gershom that Yannai composed Kerobot 
for every order of the year was in itself not suf- 
ficiently clear, 2^ and Kirkisani's statement that 

22 D'TE'n"' "TJJ, II (Jerusalem 1901) i8b and 19a. They were 
published from a MS. which he had sold to Oxford (Neu- 
bauer, Cat. II, 2708 r). 

23 Comp. J. Q. R., N. S., Vol. I, 105 et seq. 

^ These are: i) "'n "raa \v^b^ i"? dn; 2) niD ny ^Jtsa Nipna m; 
3) moaniipDonmriD hdidn; 4) im« prn D-'n'^x •?«. In the article 
mentioned in the preceding note {loc. cit., p. 108) the fourth 
poem was overlooked. Correct also statement of Elbogen 
{I.e., 310). 

2^ Note, for instance, the conclusions which- Graetz and 
Elbogen have reached in reference to Yannai's literary ac- 
tivity. The former states (Geschichte, V, 165) that Yannai 
wrote Kerobot for the Special Sabbaths, and the latter main- 
tains {I.e., 309) that he wrote Kerobot for Festivals, and both 
base their opinions upon this passage. 



XIV MAHZOR YANNAI 

Yannai's liturgical work was used by Anan as a 
source for his Halaka only made the problem more 
complicated. 

With the publication of the texts in this vol- 
ume, however, all difficulties are cleared up. It 
will be seen, first of all, that Yannai was a pro- 
lific writer, for the fragments of his Mahzor give 
evidence that this was a work of very large scope. 
It will also be seen that his compositions are sui 
generis, unlike those of Kalir, or his followers. 
Moreover, it will be shown that he preceded Kalir 
in developing the structure of the Kerobah, and in 
this respect he may truly be regarded as the 
teacher of Kalir. Finally, it will be shown from 
these texts that the theory of Yannai's Palestinian 
origin is the one most acceptable. 

Nothing is known of Yannai's life or his an- 
cestry; even his father's name is unknown. Like 
all the ancient Payyetanim he must have been a 
Hazan, and to judge from the abundance of allu- 
sions to Talmud and Midrash found in his compo- 
sitions he must have been well versed in Rabbinic 
lore. 

2. The Rise of the Didactic Piyyut 

While it is not within the province of this study 
to deal with the rise of the Piyyut in general, 
I may be permitted, by way of introduction, to 
state briefly the conclusions to which Jewish 
scholarship has come on this point after a century 
of research. It is no longer doubted that Pales- 
tine was the cradle of the Piyyut. It is also no 



INTRODUCTION XV 

longer a matter of dispute that the development 
from the simple form of the older liturgy to the 
highly artificial diction and construction of the 
Kaliric type was a slow and gradual process, 
extending over several centuries, and that it did 
not spring suddenly into being as a result of the 
spread of Islam and Arabic culture.^^ It is not 
denied that the diffusion of Arabic learning and 
poetry gave an impetus to the development of 
the Piyyut, but it is quite certain that the Plyyut 
was in process of development long before Islam 
swayed the East. This much is accepted as 
certain.27 

What is still in need of further elucidation is 
the question concerning the influences which 
shaped the development of the Piyyut. What 
were the forces that changed the simple liturgy 

^ In his essay "Die Anfange der neuhebraischen Poesie" 
(M. G. W. J., Vol. 8, pp. 401-413; Vol. 9, pp. 19-29, 57-69) 
as well as in his History (Geschichte, Vol. 5*, pp. 161-167), 
Graetz maintains that the development of the Piyyut de- 
pended largely on the spread of Arabic culture among the 
Jews. He laid too much emphasis on the statement of 
Saadia ibn Danan that before Kalir rime was unknown in 
Hebrew poetry: bn:^ D-in "inn ^:tib •'3 tinsoi nain "nii'sm "nu'pa laai^ 
'irriDiNa nvnn i:*? lyatyj ab) uyT nb b"^ Tbpn n^-i (Edelman, nnj: mon, 
Konigsberg, 1856, p. xviii) and made all his data subordi- 
nate to the view that the Jews borrowed the rime from the 
Arabs, as if it were a mathematical axiom. As a matter 
of fact, Zunz had already pointed out a greater antiquity for 
the rime (G. V. p. 392, note b), though the contact with 
the Arabs may have brought it into greater vogue. 

^^ Comp. Elbogen, Der jiidische Gottesdienst, pp. 281-282, 
285-286; Eppenstein in M. G. W. J., vol. 52, pp. 465-466. 



Xvi MAHZOR YANNAI 

to the highly complex hymn and the lucid 
Biblical phraseology to the artificial diction? 
The complexity of construction may perhaps be 
explained by ascribing it to the influence of Syriac 
poetry,^^ but it has never been convincingly shown 
why men like Kalir, who had such wonderful 
mastery of the Hebrew language, should have 
chosen to clothe their thoughts in cryptic language. 
A solution to this problem may, however, be 
derived from the accounts which have come down 
to us from the Middle Ages concerning the rise 
of the Piyyut. In the Sepher ha-Pardes ascribed 
to Rashi there is a statement by Joseph Ibn Plat 
in the name of his ancestor Benjamin b. Samuel 
of Constantinople, or Kastoria, that the Piyyut 
arose at a time when learning was on the decline, 
and that it formed a sort of substitute for the 
Midrash.2« While it is diflftcult to see how it is 
possible to connect the decline of learning with 
the progress of the Piyyut, — for the nature of the 
Piyyut presupposes a vast amount of erudition 
both on the part of the Payyetan and on that of 
his audience, — there is no reason to doubt that at 

28 Comp. Zunz, Litg., pp. 23-24. 

29 The passage reads: "rxioty I'a ro"" '"« 3"in ir:ipt cnpi -I'y, 
n'?k msin \<b\ •jN-iB'^a 7\yr\'a noan nn-n yaty"? n"^ nspe-a ncx Ypt ';t:Dipa 
B'-na D1PD3 noy n»yan:i [nnan n'?n] naann "n laaa' "d"?! b^d"? vb^ m-rb 
'nyn tsrai [manp] C^nsn oms, Warsaw, 1870, No. 174). The 
corrections in brackets are those of Epstein in M. G. W. J., 
Vol. 44, p. 295, who is also responsible for the statement that 
Joseph ibn Plat is the author of this passage. Graetz, citing 
this passage in his essay (M. G. W. J., Vol. 9, p. 24), ascribes 
it to R. Isaac Halevi. 



INTRODUCTION XVII 

one time in the history of the Synagogue service 
the Piyyut took the place of the Midrash. 

Again, in disputing the rights of the Piyyutim 
to interrupt the regular prayers, R. Judah b. 
Barzillai Albargeloni in his Sepher ha-Ittim, puts 
forth as a reason for his view the fact that the 
Piyyutim were originally instituted only in times 
of persecution. "There was a time," he says, 
"when the Jews were forbidden by their op- 
pressors to engage in the study of the Law. The 
learned men among them, therefore, introduced 
the custom of mentioning in the course of the 
prayers the laws of the festivals and the laws of 
the Sabbath and religious observance and ex- 
horting the common people in regard to them, 
by means of hymns, thanksgivings, rimes and 
Piyyutim." ^° 

This passage was extracted and published by 
Halberstam as long ago as 1870,^^^ when the Sepher 
ha-Itiim was still in manuscript; and while 
Halberstam justly connected the persecution men- 
tioned by Albargeloni with the edict of Justinian 
against the study of "Deuterosis," ^- he failed to 

'" mn'73 netyn nytya n'tn [coran] i3pn: vb^ "nnsn xnxnan'^i ■nib xrm 
piDjrt> Vib^ b^'W'' bv ca't^n y-v;m rn •'a mm ^dt -i-'atn'? yb^^'' vr\ N?ty --jdo 
"oy'? Tnrn'71 Tarn"? n'rann bb:i-z ur\b ]^apna in^j^iU' n^o^nn vr\ p '?yi nmna 
mn3B' Tina msDn pnpm nm^tt' nn'^m D^mo n^a"' ma'rm jna jnn nsSi v^^n 
n^arsi nnnm nn^i (omyn idd Krakau, 1902, p. 252). 

^^ Comp. Kobak, intt'", Vol, 6, p. 130. It was also printed 
by Koronel among other extracts from the Sepher ha-Ittim 
in his inj -I3T (Vienna, 1872, fol. 132a). 

^^ Comp. Graetz, Geschichte, Vol. 5*, pp. 410-413; Heb. 
Translation, Vol. 3, p. 32 and p. 400, note 124. 



XVlll MAHZOR YANNAI 

emphasize the real import of this passage for the 
history of the Hturgy.^^ As far as I am able to 
ascertain, Eppenstein was the first to hit upon 
the real significance of this passage, when he cited 
it as a proof that at a certain period in the history 
of the Synagogue services the Hazan took over 
the function of the Darshan; in other words, that 
in addition to the purely devotional Piyyut, there 
came into existence also the didactic or Halakic 
Piyyut. ^^ But he also did not take full advantage 
of his own interpretation of the passage and did 
not draw any further conclusions from it. To me, 
however, it appears that in the light of these two 

" Halberstam concludes his article with the following 
words: 1X3 T'^^i] o'^xi ona Ti^n"? b'm DB'iTn "jsd nnann nia ta Tipnyn^ 
[DDipD Onc", ibid., p. 130). 

^* Comp. M. G. W. J., Vol. 52, p. 467. It is strange, how- 
ever, that in the entire paragraph on Die Entwickelung der 
synagogalen Poesie, he does not cite the passage from the 
Pardes which expressly supports his theory in the words: 
TJyn oral manp tr-no oipaa noy. Another striking support of 
this theory is to be found in the Arukh. S.v. anp, the Arukh 
explains the Midrashic passage ""ip mm n'tk ,b-2r\ npsN '?3D ino 
Dts^Di yr\^ •'"jm (Pesikta, ed. Buber, 179a according to MS. 
Oxford) with the words W'^\ ]^-n .hjb'd "rya .Nipo "rya '^s. To 
this Benjamin Musafia adds the remark ^a ^^ ^"73 '■'S a'^N 
ma'rn "ryai D^rna. According to Kohut {ad loc.) the Greek word 
from which Musafia derives anp is dKpiySjys. Now, whether 
we accept Musafia's etymology or not, the fact remains that 
^yv was taken to signify "one versed in the law," and as a 
matter of fact in our edition of Lev. R. 30, and in Buber's 
text of the Pesikta {I.e.) the word ^^'\p is substituted by iB'n. 

Additional proof from the ma'T printed here for the first 
time, will be brought below in sect. 9 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

passages many things which formerly seemed not 
a little puzzling may now be made clear and 
intelligible. 

3. The Cryptic Language of the Piyyut 

First of all, we find in these two passages a 
plausible reason why the early Payyetanim broke 
away from the simplicity of language which marks 
the " Stammgebete/' If we grant that the early 
Payyetanim had to introduce Halakic discourses 
and Midrashic homilies into the body of the 
prayers and at the same time had to guard against 
detection from the outside, we realize at once why 
they chose to speak in hints and allusions. One 
is strongly reminded of the secret epistle sent to 
Raba of Mahuza informing him of the fixing of 
the Calendar in the reign of Constantine II and 
the co-emperor Gallus (353 C. E.). *'A pair came 
from Rakkath" — so reads the letter according 
to the Talmudic tradition — "and an eagle caught 
them, and they had with them the things that are 
made in Luz. But by the mercy of God and their 
own merits they escaped. When the off^spring of 
Nahshon wished to appoint a prefect, the Edomite 
would not permit them. But the members of the 
assemblies gathered together and appointed a 
prefect in the month in which Aaron the Priest 
died." ^^ This reads like a cipher, yet it was still 
understood by R. Hananeel in the nth century, 

^^ b. Sanhedrin 12*. The phrase n'^an in-": -ndi is undoubtedly 
a marginal gloss explaining n'?3 w^in onai which crept into 
the text. 



XX MAHZOR YANNAI 

who deciphered it as follows: ^^ "Two messengers 
were sent from Tiberias; on the way they were 
held up by some Roman official, but due to their 
observance of the laws of 'fringes,' they escaped. 
The Patriarch desired to make the year a leap- 
year at the regular time, but as the government 
did not permit, they decided in the month of Ab 
to make the following year a leap-year." " Even 
Prayers couched in cryptic language are not rare 
in Talmudic literature,^^ but the above passage is 
sufficient to show that the method of speaking in 
allusions was already in use in early times. The 
Payyetanim therefore have merely adapted an 
old method to new conditions. 

4. Tannats Liturgical Compositions as a Source 
for Halaka 

Then again, from the testimony of the Karaite 
Kirkisani, we know that Anan, the founder of 
Karaism, drew in two instances upon the Piyyutim 
of Yannai for his legal sources.^^ How can we 

36 Comp. "^NJin '-\ ad. loc, also iny s.v. a^ and ""'^n ad loc. 

37 I follow R. Hananeel ad loc. 2S t^nna njcn n^^y D'Dann nan 
D"'cnn '3 niB'n b'nt nmp; comp. also Rashi ad loc. pmn "iSD ns'tn 
•nTV'3 r^^yo. Graetz {Gesch., Vol. 4, p. 343) assumes that they 
intercalated the month of Ab. Comp. also ibid., p. 491. 
For similar forms of speech in Talmud, comp. b. Erubin 53^ 
'131 naa nspa rbv -an moN ntsan nc*^3 x^ynca nin na an "an xnnox; also 

Moed Katon 9**. 

38 Comp. Jawitz, n'Jitysnn n^arsn, in Hoffman's Festschrift, 

pp. 69-71. 
3^ Comp. below, sect. 12, B, C. 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

explain this unless we say that, in addition to in- 
spiring his audience with rehgious devotion, the 
function of the Payyetan was also to expound the 
laws in his poems. 

Ingenious as this theory is and clear though 
the statements of Albargeloni and Joseph ibn 
Plat read, we nevertheless have had no positive 
evidence until now that there were Piyyutim 
which were Halakic to a large extent. Kalir's 
compositions do occasionally treat of laws, but 
they are overwhelmingly Agadic in character. 
An argument from the Azharot would not be to 
the point since they form a class by themselves, 
and the legal nature of the later Piyyutim, such, 
for instance, as Joseph Tob Elem's,^" are likewise 
no proof, since they also are only sporadic. The 
fragments of Yannai's Mahzor, however, give us 
for the first time positive support of this theory and 
do away with all doubt on the subject, for the 
Halakic nature of the Piyyutim in these fragments 
is self-evident. 

5. Tannats Mahzor and the Triennial Cycle 

From the way in which these fragmentary 
poems are grouped around the Biblical sections, we 
can see that the work in its complete state must 
have formed a sort of Halakic Midrash to the 
Pentateuch in poetic form. This is in thorough 
agreement with the statement of R. Gershom that 

*° Comp. e.g., the Piyyut nas^nn"? ^'na «3n for the Great 
Sabbath. 



XXll MAHZOR YANNAI 

Yannai wrote Kerobot for each weekly portion 
of the Bible."*^ Mark the expression nDmD'?2^. 
He does not say naa'i nnty '?3'?, in which case the 
theme of the Kerobot might have been purely 
devotional. R. Gershom undoubtedly means to 
imply that the theme of each Kerobah was taken 
from the Biblical portion of the week. This is 
borne out by our fragments which comprise the 
remnant of seven Kerobot, grouped about seven 
different weekly portions of the Bible, beginning 
with the following verses: Leviticus 13:29, 14:1, 
14:33, 15:1, 15:25, 21:1, 22:17. Viewed from the 
point of the annual cycle, five of these verses 
form the middle of the sections jmsD ynm and "iidn, 
and therefore could not have been taken as head- 
ings for Kerobot. But here, again, the theory 
of Yannai's Palestinian origin comes to our assist- 
ance. For, on examining the divisions of the 
Sedarim in the Book of Leviticus, based upon 
the Triennial Cycle, current in Palestine, we find 
that the seven verses used by Yannai as texts 
for his Kerobot exactly mark the beginning of 
seven Sedarim, namely Sedarim 8 to 12, 17 and 18 

41 mm mo "^d*? nunp i3"di o'jiti'Nnn D-'oann ]q n-nty "sr '1 nn^. 
Comp. r^pbn '''72^ ed. Buber, p. 25. It is strange that Elbogen, 
in citing this passage, mistranslates it "dass Yannai fiir 
alle Festtage kerobot verfasst hat " {Der jiid. Gottesdienst, p. 
309), whereas in a preceding chapter {ibid., p. 286), he states 
quite without any emphasis that "im Anschluss an die Peri- 
kopen des dreijahrigen Zyklus wurden auch Piutim fiir alle 
Sabbate verfasst," Comp. also his Studien zur Gesch. d. jud. 
Gottesdienstes, p. 47. 



INTRODUCTION XXUl 

of Leviticus.''^ The phrase noi mo b:h of R. Ger- 
shom now receives a fresh significance. It is for 
the Sedarim of the Triennial Cycle that Yannai 
composed his Kerobot. The weekly portions of 
the Bible in the annual cycle are usually desig- 
nated not as Sedarim but as nrtyna. We cannot, 
of course, adduce this as positive evidence that 
Yannai was a Palestinian, for it may be argued 
that the Triennial Cycle was also current in a few 
localities outside of Palestine. But it does prove 
that in his liturgical compositions Yannai took 
cognizance of the Palestinian rather than the Baby- 
lonian usage. On the other hand, since we know 
from Benjamin of Tudela that in Cairo, in 1170, 
the reading of the law in the synagogue of the 
"men of the land of Israel" was completed in 
three years,*' and since our fragments were found 
in the Cairo Genizah, we have the full right to 
assert that the Mahzor of Yannai was at one time 
in use at the Palestinian Synagogues of Cairo. 

^2 In the Massora these Sedarim are designated as follows: 

(8) nxanp hb'x i« b'-x (9) n\nn nxn -lann (10) y:3 "nnan i3Tt 
(11) rrrf "3 tr^N tyxn ^^T: (12) air •'3 ntrxi (17) o'jnan *?« "tafrnDK-i 
(18) anp" ntyxT -isTi. Comp. rii'?n: mxipo Venice, 1524. mo rba 
miDon ^'Dj? mm; Saphir, tsd p« II, 230-231; Friedmann, 
•:mbr\ n^3 III, 230; Theodor, M. G. W. J., Vol. 35 (1886), 
pp. 406-409; Biichler, J. Q. R., V, 420, etc. In the texts 
given in the Hebrew part I place these designations at the 
head of their respective Kerobot. 
^ See ro'» myoD, ed. Asher, p. 98. 



XXIV MAHZOR YANNAI 

6. The Causes oj the Neglect of Tannais 
Compositions 

It is most likely that Yannai's Pi3ryutim were 
neglected and gradually fell into desuetude and 
were finally forgotten because of the fact that 
they were so closely connected with the Triennial 
Cycle and were so thoroughly Halakic in nature. 
The opposition of men like Albargeloni to the 
use of Piyyutim in the body of the prayers, 
as well as the ineptitude of such subjects for de- 
votional purposes, together with the fact that the 
Triennial Cycle itself was discarded, were the 
real factors that brought about the disappearance 
of Piyyutim like those of Yannai. Kalir, on the 
other hand, who took the substance of the Agada 
for his material, met with great popularity. Zunz 
says that Kalir's Piyyutim may be regarded in a 
certain sense as poetic Pesiktas.^* To character- 
ize Yannai's compositions in a similar way, we 
may say that his Piyyutim are Halakic Mid- 
rashim dressed in poetic garb. 

** G. V.^ 396. Comp. also Rapoport, r'^D iny p. 176. 
From this point of view the Kaliric phrase D'smo nam B'nn Tty 
TiDB' nijnn (in his Piyyut nsDS ncxn), rendered by Arnheim 
"Neue Lieder und Tone der Dichtungen jubeln meine Lip- 
pen" (nnsr Glogau u. Leipzig, 1840, p. 178), receive a fresh 
meaning. It is "Dichtungen" which are supposed to take 
on the nature of Midrashim. Comp. also Zunz, Litg., p. 33, 
note 7. 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

7. Tannai and Kalir 

The contrast between the popularity of KaHr 
and the neglect of Yannai is perhaps the origin 
of the legend, emanating from R. Ephraim of 
Bonn, that Yannai, having become jealous of the 
reputation of his pupil Kalir, threw a scorpion in 
his shoe which caused his death. '*^ To take this 
statement literally would certainly be absurd. 
We must regard it merely as an idiom, undoubtedly 
Oriental in origin, for expressing unfriendliness. 
And while I am unable to find a parallel for it, I 
have no doubt as to the correctness of the inter- 
pretation. It merely points to some unpleasant 
relations between Yannai and Kalir.^^ 

One point more touching both Yannai and Kalir 
must be cleared up before we proceed further in 
the study of our poet. Until now we held with 
Zunz that Kalir was "the Law giver" in the field 
of Kerobot.^^ We believed that it was he who 
first developed the structure of the Kerobah. 
But from our texts we will see that the Kerobah 
had its structure already perfected in the liturgy 
of Yannai. Whether he was the first to develop 
it or not is not safe to assert. At all events we 
must take away the credit from Kalir, though it 
remains true that the later Payyetanim modeled 
their compositions after those of Kalir, as the 
names T^p i:jr ,T*?p tD'^m etc. indicate."^ Yannai's 

*^ Comp. ion DT3 VI, 25, cited below sect. 12, 1. 
^ Comp. also r\r\r\, N. Y., 1917, No. 22, p. 10. 
*' Litg.j p. 29. *^ Ibid., p. 34, note i. 



XXVI MAHZOR YANNAI 

compositions, though voluminous, must have dis- 
appeared at a very early date, or at least remained 
local, and had no influence on his successors. 

8. The Structure oj Tannais Kerohot 

Let us then get a clear idea of the structure of 
the Kerobah as formed by Yannai. This will 
enable us to determine at a glance how much is 
missing in some of the Kerobot given below in 
the Hebrew part, and will also help us to decide 
whether the Piyyut DTiom niDQ '•i^K, the single 
Kerobah of Yannai found in print, has come down 
to us complete or not. 

A careful study of the text of our fragments will 
show that the Kerobah of Yannai consists of the 
following parts : ^^ 

I. Magen (pD). A poem inserted near the end 
of the first benediction of the Amidah, always 
containing half the Alphabet (from K to b) in 
acrostic, and followed by the Biblical verse with 
which the Seder of the Kerobah begins. This, 
again, is followed by verses from other parts of 
the Bible to which reference may have been made 
in the poem. 

^® All printed Keroboth, whether of Yannai or other 
Payyetanim, are preceded by the introductory formula 
D-'Juai D'^onn niDD; in our fragment, however, this introduction 
is invariably missing. This in itself argues a later date for 
this introduction. As an additional argument for its later 
origin we may bring the fact that it consists of four riming 
phrases modelled perhaps after Kalir's "conclusions." Yan- 
nai always employs only three riming phrases in his "con- 
clusions." 



INTRODUCTION XXVU 

I a. Conclusion to Mage?i (na^nn, later called 
jnD) : A short verse, consisting of three riming 
phrases,^° beginning with the same word with 
which the preceding Biblical quotation concludes,^^ 
and leading up to the idea characteristic of the 
Benediction. This scheme of construction is not 
new with Yannai, for it is already found in the 
daily Kedushah. The piece beginning T3J ini inb 
n'?na is nothing else but the na^nn of the Kedushah. 
It begins with the words with which the last Bib- 
lical quotation of the Kedushah concludes, viz.: 
n^'i'?'?n *im in"? trs i^n'rK nb\vb 'n '■\\bn\^^ and leads up to 
the idea of the third benediction. In the Kedusha 
for the Musaf service of Sabbath this scheme is 

^^ The "conclusions" in Kalir's and later Kerobot in- 
variably consist of four riming phrases. 

" The printers have often omitted the Biblical verses, 
because they did not realize the relationship between the 
verses and the "conclusions," and have thereby caused the 
opening of the "conclusions" to seem arbitrary. Further- 
more, they generally inserted there the word ?Tn to indicate 
that from there the cantor should begin to chant. This, of 
course, is a complete reversion of the original custom. For, 
surely, before the age of printed prayer books it was the 
Hazan who read the Piyyutim entire, not the congregation. 
In this connection, it may be well worth citing the following 
passage from the Responsum of R. Jair Hayyim Bachrach 
(TK^ mn No. 238) : ^notri .oian n''n inb^ nVnno "3 ^^-ipt itys« ^^^3 b":" 
"Tn-'D cai rm .r'cyn max-'C' p-\ nmann nba onanan nan «'?b' ,K3id n^y 
y2\'\p2 n: jnjon n^n^ n«n3 idi .onann an-'n'? loy d^oik ik .i"? D"':nNO nb^o 
...nw-\ Y^^n nb'a: r^ya xinty /i3i D'^JDil D''ODn niDD onaiSB' hdd n^'n 
main xsM ...D'j'^Dton n^y itiyanac nyo pT ...ono nan d-iisin vn n"? oy \)am 

'.D''3iipi n'^mb fix pDH '?3'7 Dnann b^ nn^ax latysni .mNjn nnaity oy .mx"? 

^^ The word n"'i'?'7n, being a response, was not taken into 
consideration. 



XXVlll MAHZOR YANNAI 

further developed thus : n«n b:i i^n m«2S 'n ^np mip 
nUD is followed by D'riy «'?» ITOD ; and 'nma^ira 
M2']pDt:i by is^ Nin )D)pDi:i and nnx 'n irn'?« 'n '?«i5y^ yoB' 
by irn'?« Kin "inX- 

II. Mehayyeh (n^nD). A poem inserted near the 
end of the second benediction of the Amidah, 
completing the acrostic of the Alphabet (from o 
to n), followed by the next verse of the Seder 
and other verses from various parts of the Bible. 

II a. Conclusion to Mehayyeh. Similar in 
structure to No. I, a. 

III. A poem of a Messianic character contain- 
ing the author's name in acrostic, followed by 
various Biblical verses. 

IV. Ki ■?« ^^'^P nnxi 

This superscription is placed in our fragments 
at the head of the Piyyutim which precede the 
Kedusha, and together with which they take the 
place of the third benediction in the repetition of 
the Amidah by the Hazan {v^r\ mm). In all 
printed rituals these Pi5ryutim are headed by two 
verses: Ps. 146:10 T\^\bbn -im ii"? p^s th'tk rb\t? 'n i'td'' 
and Ps. 22 :4 "rN-ity^ r\t7\T\ ^bt mip nnxi ; the former 
is sometimes introduced by the word idxji and to 
the latter are appended the words w •?«, without 
any apparent connection. There is no connection 
between the two verses themselves, nor between 
them and the Piyyutim that precede or follow. 
The difficulty with regard to Ps. 146:10 was not 
even noticed by commentators and literary critics, 
but the incongruity of the use of nj^k received 
the attention of a few scholars. Zunz regards the 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

two words w'rx as belonging to the quotation 
from Ps. 22:4, but does not explain the connec- 
tion.^^ Arnheim (ad loc.) translates it by the 
exclamation, "O Gott!" without any further 
remark. Kobak takes it to be a sign that in cer- 
tain communities Ps. 22:4 was immediately fol- 
lowed by the Pi5ryut npiri D'ny'? «: *?« omitting the 
intervening poems.^^ Berliner explains the pres- 
ence of these two words in this place as follows: 
In the Kerobot of Kalir, he says, the quotation 
from Psalm 22:4 is always followed by a short 
Piyyut beginning w ■?« and ending dhdi xn: D^pi ""n 
li^np). In this respect, however, Kalir was not 
always followed by the other Payyetanim, and as 
a consequence many Kerobot do not have such a 
Piyyut. To supply this omission some communi- 
ties made use of the ancient prayer \>iyin nb\v^ Ni ■?« 
and inserted here the words nj^k as a reference 
to that prayer. The printers, however, inserted 
these words of reference even in Kerebot which 
contained the short prayer in question, and the 
result was all the more confusing. This is the 
substance of Berliner's remarks on this question.^^ 
A thorough examination, however, of the Kero- 
bot of Kalir and others will show that this state- 
ment is entirely erroneous. First of all, we will 
find that in most of Kalir's Kerobot this par- 
ticular section does not begin with xj'?x. In 
the Sabionetta Mahzor of 1560 the Kerobah b^nrn^ 
for the New Year is altogether without the words 

^ S. P., p. 66. ^ men VII, p. 64. 

^^ Randbemerkungen, II, p. 66. 



XXX MAHZOR YANNAI 

Ni^N in this particular section; and even in 
Kerobot where the words N3b« do occur at the 
beginning of this particular section, it is evident 
that they could not have been there originally. 
The Kerobah of Kalir for Shekalim begins in the 
Sabionetta edition ompsn bD iv^ 'par "D Ki *?«, but the 
context plainly shows that there is no connection 
between xi bi< and what follows. Secondly, we will 
find that in no Kerobah is this section ever mis- 
sing. It is true that it does not always begin 
with Ni ^N, but it is always present and always ends 
with the word mip. There was, therefore, no 
need of ever using the old prayer pyin D^iy"? «j •?« as 
a substitute. The use of the words kj^« in this 
place must therefore have come about in some 
other way. 

To clear up all these difficulties I suggest the 
following. The words tynp nnx and xa^x were ori- 
ginally used only as rubrics. Just as the first sec- 
tion of the Kerobah is called po and the second 
n-'nD, so is this fourth section, consisting of two 
parts, designated by the two rubrics unp nnx and 
Nj'?N. The reason for this is that since this sec- 
tion is the beginning of the Piyyutim which take 
the place of the third benediction, and since that 
benediction begins B'npnnK, or nnxmnp according 
to the Palestinian Ritual,^^ the poem was like- 
wise designated as mip nn«." The second part of 
this section, again, is always to be followed by 

^^ Comp. Elbogen, Der jiid. GoUesdienst, p. 45. 
^' This was preferable to nn« trnp because it echoes the 
Biblical verse Ps. 22:4, 



INTRODUCTION XXXI 

the ancient prayer pyin nb^v^ nj *?« and therefore 
was designated as Ki'rK. The whole section then 
received the designation nj bii — m'v? nnx. The 
copyist, however, faihng to see the significance of 
these catchwords, took trnp nnx as an abbreviated 
form of Ps. 22 .'4 and generously supplied the rest 
of the verse, letting the words Xi *?K stand. 

To return now to the question how Ps. 146:10 
has come to be introduced here. The fact that 
our fragments show no trace of the use of this 
verse in this connection might lead us to the 
opinion that it is entirely due to the copyists. 
But this is not so. The most plausible explana- 
tion is this. This fourth section of the Kerobah 
under discussion is in all MS. texts preceded by a 
group of Biblical verses, which are of a Messianic 
character. It is therefore natural that they should 
conclude with Ps. 146:10 which speaks of Zion's 
God ruling forevermore. Hence it is not to be 
taken as the heading of the following Piyyutim 
but as the conclusion of the preceding group of 
Biblical quotations. The printers, however, have 
often omitted all the other verses and left this verse 
stand by itself, causing thereby the prevalent mis- 
comprehension that it is the heading of the fol- 
lowing Piyyutim. The absence of this verse in 
the Kerobot of our fragments may be explained on 
the ground that these Kerobot were intended for 
the ordinary Sabbaths, while all other known 
Kerobot are for special Sabbaths or holidays. 
That such a distinction was made may be seen 
from the fact that in Yannai's Kerobah niDD-JiH 



XXxii MAHZOR YANNAI 

D^nam for the Great Sabbath this verse does 
occur. 

The first poem of this section, i.e., the one desig- 
nated as srnp nnK% consists of a rimed passage 
without any acrostic ending with the word ^"iip. 
The formula mipi cnDT ^in D^pi ^n was, in my 
opinion, first used by Kahr, from whom it was 
borrowed by all later Payyetanim. In Yannai 
it does not occur.^^ The second poem of this 
section, i.e., the one referred to as «3^k, contains 
as acrostic only from the letter K to "^ and is fol- 
lowed by the ancient prayer n^iri o'^^y'? «3 ^«.^^ In 
our fragments this prayer is not reproduced in full. 

V. A poem with a complete acrostic of the al- 
phabet headed by part of the Biblical text of the 
Seder. 

^^ In the Piyyut DTiam noa '':i« this passage concludes 
with the words t^np .cnm «^^3 Dj? which is the nearest approach 
to the Kaliric formula. This, by the way, proves that the 
reading ti'fipi is erroneous. The word cynp is to be taken as 
a word by itself, a sort of response. 

^' In this connection attention may be drawn to the 
opinion of Rapoport (cited by Borges in Tjon VII, 23) that 
the prayer pyin o'^iy'? nj bn is the composition of Yannai, 
forming in fact the complement to the Piyyut nno ytt'n tn in 
the Kerobah D-nom ntja ■'Jin inasmuch as it completes the 
acrostic, and that it was afterwards transferred to the 
Kerobot of other Payyetanim. If this were the case it 
would be difficult to explain the frequent use which Yannai 
himself makes of this prayer in the Kerobot of our fragment. 
I have no doubt that pym d'tij?'? w "tk is much older than 
Yannai, and that already in his time it was so well known 
that it was only necessary to refer to it by the first two or 
three words, as is done In our fragment. 



INTRODUCTION XXXlll 

VI. Another poem with a complete acrostic of 
the alphabet, headed by one more verse from the 
Seder and introduced by the word p3i. 

VII. A third alphabetic acrostic, likewise 
headed with a verse from the Seder and introduced 
by the word p2^ 

VIII. A poem, every word of which forms part 
of an acrostic of the inverted alphabet (pntyri) 
without any introduction.^** It always begins 
with the words with which the preceding poem 
concludes, and is followed by three sub-sections: 

(a) A rimed passage without acrostic, lead- 
ing up to the quotation from Isa. 6:3, indicated by 
the catchword N-ipi." 

(b) A passage without rime, or acrostic, de- 
veloping the idea of the threefold use of the word 
mip and leading up to the quotation from Ezek. 
3:12 indicated by the catchword nnDy*?.^^ 

(c) Continuation leading up to the quotation 

®° In the Kerobah for Lev. 21, i (see Hebrew Text below), 
this section is also introduced by the word pai. Altogether 
it is a point well worth considering, whether the use of pai in 
this connection was not borrowed from the New Year liturgy, 
and whether we should not expect a threefold use of this 
formula corresponding to iins ;n pm .nns ;n psi, and cppns pm. 
On the various responsa dealing with the question of how 
many times P3t is used in the New Year liturgy, see "no"') nnno, 
p. 366, note 20. For the meaning of the word, comp. Zunz, 
S. P., p. 425. 

®^ This corresponds to the opening passage of the Kedushah 
(isnyj). 

®2 Corresponds to the Kedushah passage beginning w'rDmaa 



XXXIV MAHZOR YANNAI 

from Deut. 6:4, indicated by the catchword 



63 



IX. Consists of an alphabetic acrostic followed 
by a number of rimes of a Messianic character, 
leading up to Num. 15:41, indicated by the 
catchword nrn*?.®* 

Since the Kerobot were part of the Morning 
Service, the presence of Deut. 6:4 in the Amidah 
is another proof of Yannai's Palestinian origin. 
For we know from a responsum of Yehudai Gaon 
that in Palestine the yoB' was recited in the 
Kedusha of nnnc' and not in that of eioiD.^^ 

9. Tannais Kerobah for the Great Sabbath 

If, now, we subject the Kerobah DTiDm ni3D ""Jix 
to the test of this scheme of construction, we shall 
find that four out of the nine sections are wanting. 
The first four sections are found complete, except- 
ing that the Biblical verses before the two con- 
clusions (i.e., I a and II a) are wanting either 
entirely or in part in printed editions.^^ These 

^ Corresponds to the passage beginning 'iO)ptiio. 

^ Corresponds to irn'r^ Kin inn. It is safe to assume that 
there was a fifth part to this section, leading up to the quota- 
tion of Ps. 146:10 and that its omission here is due either 
to the defective state of our MSS. or to the fact that like 
iiTn« Tn« it was used only in the Kerobot for Festivals and 
the New Year. 

^ Comp. Glnzberg, Geonica II, 48, etc. Ginzberg also 
called attention to the fact that Kalir must have had the 
yoB' in the Kedushah of nnnty {ibid., p. 420). 

^^ In the Sabionetta Mahzor some verses are cited but not 
all; in the ordinary editions the verses are entirely omitted. 



INTRODUCTION XXXV 

however, are found in three MSS. of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary,^^ showing that the omis- 
sions are due to the whims of the printer. The 
next poem, rnthzn u^d: dh tn, since it is introduced by 
the word p2i must, according to our scheme, be 
taken for the sixth section, and the last poem, 
beginning nb^b y:^b r« '3 ?33i and preceded by the 
introductory phrase mip nnx ^3 na^np n'?yn i? p3i 
y^t:'iai bi<']^\ is certainly section Villa, since it is 
without acrostic and leads up to the quotation 
from Is. 6:3. 

But here we are confronted with a number of 
difficulties. First of all, according to our scheme, 
section Villa is never introduced by pat; sec- 
ondly, the introductory word pm is always fol- 
lowed in Yannai's liturgy by a Biblical verse 
from the Seder, i.e. the Biblical portion of the week, 
which is not the case here; and thirdly, how are 
we to explain the use of the two successive 
phrases, ntj'np n'?yn "i"? p2i and n*?^*? tJs"? r« '3 P3T the 
one immediately following the other .?^^ All these 
difficulties, however, may be explained as follows. 
A perusal of our printed Mahzor will show that 
the pi'?D, that is the poem which immediately pre- 
cedes the Kedushah and corresponds to section 
VIII in Yannai's Kerobot, is always preceded by 
the introduction ntrnp n'?yn n*? p3T with the further 
differentiation, that in the Kerobot for the New 

^' Comp. preface above, 

^^ The apparently ungrammatical construction of r>< ""a P3i 
Titib is obviated in certain texts (e.g., MS. C) by reading 

T^S*? PN 1331. 



XXXVl MAHZOR YANNAI 

Year this introductory phrase ends with nnx -3 
l'?Dirn'?N, in the Kerobot for the Day of Atone- 
ment it ends with n'?iDi "rniD i'td trn'?« nriK ""d and in 
the Kerobot for all other occasions it ends with 
irsj'iDi ^KiB'^ mip nns ^3.^^ In other words, the char- 
acter of the day is indicated in the concluding 
words of this introductory phrase. This intro- 
ductory phrase is undoubtedly a later interpola- 
tion and does not belong to the original composi- 
tion. Like the introduction n^:nji d^ddh ^dd in 
which the same method is adopted, ^° it must 
have been introduced by some later Payyetan. 
His object undoubtedly was to indicate the pi'?D of 
each Kerobah. 

Bearing this in mind we may explain the con- 
struction of the last section in the Kerobah under 
discussion as follows. The word pai of the 
phrase n"?^"? t^s*? T^^ '3 p3i is really the remnant of 
section VII, which, according to our scheme, 
should be preceded by pat and a Biblical verse. 
This verse, however, has been lost, together with 
the entire section VII, leaving only its introduc- 
tory word. 

The beginning of the section under discussion, 
in its original state, was really nb^b T^s"? r^< ''^ and is 
really section Villa. But the copyist erroneously 

^' Since this is based on Is. 43 : 3 IT^O 'tnib" Binp T^'^x "'" ^:k "a 
The reading yc'ioi common in all editions is incorrect. 

'° For n'n it ends with iVd -jej pn'n m'^n'? D'jwnnat n'rsna "<E3 nnnsx 
D'jnxn '':nNi n-a'TDn "a'ro, for s^ar it ends with bma ibo "JB ...nnriEJK 
n-'iiy^ n'7iDi, while for the festivals it ends with n':3-n r^2 -a nnns« 



INTRODUCTION XXXVU 

fused the introductory word p2i that was left of 
section VII with the section immediately follow- 
ing it. And since the eighth section was also lost 
this poem was taken for the piho of the Kerobah, 
and the copyist prefixed the introduction i*? pat 
^y^triDt biii^^ U'i^p nn« o njrnp n'?yn to make it conform 
with all other Kerobot. In reproducing this 
Kerobah in this volume the word pm is restored 
to its proper place and the missing sections, viz., 
V, VII, VIII, VIII b, c and IX are so indicated. 

The poem D'^mnDiTTix which in some rituals is 
placed immediately before section Villa ^^ is cer- 
tainly an interpolation of the copyists intended to 
take the place of the missing poem (VIII). Zunz 
lists it among anonymous compositions ^- and 
Rapoport ascribes it to a certain Menahem with- 
out giving his reasons for it.'^^ At all events it is 
not the composition of Yannai, and the rituals 
which assign it for the Musaf service of the Great 
Sabbath ^^ are more correct in their tradition. 

In MS. B the poem D^mniamTnx is not only 
placed immediately before section Villa as it is 
done in some rituals, but is preceded by a man 
with a partial acrostic of the Alphabet (from K to 
i). This only shows to what extent the medi- 
aeval scribes took liberties with the liturgic 
material at hand, and how arbitrary they were in 
their arrangement of compositions. For there is 
certainly no place for a men in this part of the 

^1 Comp. n^DB'n-iyB' Amst. 1717. " Litg. 89. 

^3 Comp. T3on VII, p. 23. 

?* Comp. enp mnn Venice, 1600. 



XXXviil MAHZOR YANNAI 

Kerobah, and it Is almost evident on the face of It 
that the mm and the piyyut D^mnamTiN do not 
belong to the same author. The mtyi, however, 
is an interesting composition in itself. It seems 
to date from Geonic times, for the poet uses the 
expression nu^nD '^i<i apy^ ^iiN3 mB^na and It gives 
additional support to the theory advanced above 
that the Hazan took the place of the Darshan 
in the statement found at the end of the poem, 
viz., mmx "ix nsyn DipD2i. 

For this reason and also because it is entirely 
unknown, it is reproduced in this volume together 
with the texts of Yannai. 

One more point of interest gained from this MS. 
is that the whole series of Piyyutim which we 
designate as Kerobah is termed there Kniynp. 

lo. The Fragments of Mahzor Tannai. 

The fragments of Mahzor Yannai have had an 
interesting history in themselves. When Professor 
Schechter "had unearthed the literary debris of 
ages, accumulated in the Cairo Genizah, and 
brought his great 'hoard of Hebrew Manuscripts' 
to Cambridge, the collection was unexpectedly 
found to comprise some leaves from a disused 
Synagogue copy of Aquila's Greek version of the 
Old Testament with portions of that curious and 
famous translation in early uncial writing still 
legible beneath the Hebrew of a later century." 
(Taylor, in the preface to his book mentioned 
below.) Facsimiles of these palimpsests were 



INTRODUCTION XXXIX 

published and their Greek contents edited in two 
volumes, "Fragments of the Book of Kings, ac- 
cording to the translation of Aquila," by F. C. 
Burkitt in 1897, containing 6 plates, and "He- 
brew-Greek Cairo Genizah Palimpsests" by C. 
Taylor in 1900, containing 11 plates. A photo- 
graph of Plate IV of Burkitt's volume is repro- 
duced in the Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. Aquila, 
and in M. L. Margolis, "The Story of the Bible 
Translations," Philadelphia, 1917, p. 42. As far 
as the Hebrew texts in these palimpsests are 
concerned, nine of the 11 plates in Taylor's book 
were identified as pieces from Yerushalmi and 
Midrash. But the Hebrew of the first two 
plates and that of the six plates in Burkitt's book 
remained until now unidentified. These I have 
now identified as leaves from Mahzor Yannai. 
Yannai's authorship of the compositions con- 
tained in these MSS. cannot be doubted. His 
name occurs four times in four acrostics, each time 
in the same section of the Kerobah (in our scheme 
No. HI). Fortunately, the Hebrew of plate I 
of Taylor's book is a continuation of plate H in 
Burkitt's book, whereas the Greek of these two 
plates represents two entirely difi^erent parts of 
the Bible (Ps. xxi and 3 Kings xxi respec- 
tively). Dr. Taylor suggested that what we have 
before us were the leaves of "a synagogue copy 
of Aquila's Greek version." With equal as- 
surance we may assert that in their second state, 
that of palimpsests, these leaves were part of a 
synagogue copy of the long-lost Mahzor of Yannai. 



xl MAHZORYANNAI 

II. The Contents, Diction and Orthography of 
the Fragments 

A study of the contents of our fragments shows 
that Yannai combined in his Piyyutim the ele- 
ments of both the Halaka and the Agada, and 
that he followed a well-defined plan in the arrange- 
ment of his material. The first two sections of 
the Kerobah, as well as the fourth and the ninth, 
are all Agadic in character. The third section, 
the one in which his name always occurs in the 
acrostic, is always of a Messianic nature, while 
the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth deal with the 
Halaka related to the Seder of the Kerobah. Of 
the ninth section, our fragment ofi^ers only one 
example, ^^ and from its fragmentary nature we 
may conclude that it is Agadic with a Messianic 
conclusion. 

For his sources Yannai drew not only upon the 
Bab3donian and Palestinian Talmudim, but also 
upon the Midrashim Leviticus Rahba and both 
Tanhumas. What is very striking is that in the 
selection of Biblical verses which always follow 
the first two sections of the Kerobah, Yannai uses 
the identical verses which Lev. R. uses for its 
Proems. "^^ This can hardly be regarded as ac- 
cidental. It seems more plausible that Yannai 
had before him the Midrash of Leviticus Rahba 
very much in the form which it has before us 

'^ Comp. Hebrew part p. 4. 

^^ Comp. the Biblical verses in Fragments 'a, 'n and 'n 
with those used for proems in Lev. R. s. 16, 18 and 19. 



INTRODUCTION xH 

now, in which case we are safe in assuming that 
he flourished not earher than the middle of the 
seventh century. 

The subject matter of the Piyyutim in our 
fragments may seem to us inappropriate for poetic 
treatment and unseemly for public presentation. 
The laws of leprosy and bodily uncleanliness are 
certainly not calculated for religious services ac- 
cording to our modern notions; not so, however, 
to the men of those times. The Midrash, in its 
quaint manner of couching every idea in some form 
of Biblical exegesis, states its attitude towards 
this question in the following way: "One verse 
says: 'His locks are curled and black as a raven' 
(Song of Songs v:ii) and another verse reads: 
*His aspect is like Lebanon, excellent as the cedars' 
{ibid., v:i5). R. Samuel, the son of Isaac, applies 
these verses to the weekly portions of the Bible. 
Although some of them may appear too black and 
ugly to be read in public, such as the laws of im- 
purity and plagues, menses and child-birth, yet 
the Holy One, blessed be He, said they were 
pleasant to me." " 

As to the diction of Yannai, our fragments con- 
firm the opinion expressed by Luzzatto ^^ on the 
basis of the printed Kerobah Q^nam ntSQ ""JIN that he 
indulges rarely in difficult and unusual forms 
and that he makes frequent use of metaphorical 

" Comp, Lev. R. s. 19: 'n t:'''nB'] aniyD nmnB' 101X nnN 2in3 
pns*" 13 '7X1DB' '-\... [i^ts ,D{y] n-nto nna pja'po inxno -)Din nn« ainai [«"•' 
pDix"? nmntyi nmys in 1*7x3 mNiJC """ayx min b^ n^nrcnsa Nnp nriD 
."b^ many jn nn n'apn ia« m'rn mj n-'yjJi nan ma^n iiJ3 D'-ana 

'^ Comp. his ■wno'? N3D p. 11. 



Xlii MAHZOR YANNAI 

expressions.^^ His style is by far simpler than 
that of Kalir. 

In its orthography, our manuscripts present a 
number of peculiarities. Aside from the fact that 
almost all words are written plene, the letter i 
is sometimes used in place of a V^p and the '» for a 
^iD ; ^° and the words n^ and d\-!'?k are always writ- 
ten T, Dn'rN, the latter mostly in quotations from 
the Bible. ^^ In reproducing the text I have ad- 
hered closely to the orthography of the MSS. 
Another interesting point is that in one place 
we find the consonant n rime with y.^^ Xhe simi- 
larity in the pronunciation of these two letters, 
common in Samaritan speech/^' is ascribed in the 
Talmud also to the men of Galilee. ^^ But accord- 

'9 Here are some of the unusual forms found in our Frag- 
ments. Fragment «.DninD (1. 2=^), njB's?: (1. 4=*), dj (i. 8^, ^S'"? 
and mr"? (I. 11^) "riry (1. i^^^). Fragment a, T0i3 (1. 2^), dot 
(1. 3''). Fragment n.^xn (I. 64). Fragment 1, d^dod (I, 22^). 
Fragment t, Djis"? (1. 12). Metaphorical expressions: rv^'b^ 
for the Greeks (Fragment « 1. 34); jma = God (Fragment 3 
I. 12). D">ninD tciB'a """up = Jewish people (Fragment i 1. 11^). 

^" Comp. riDCU for hdb'J in Fragment 3 1. 20; ijjaua for 
iy332 {ibid., 1.32); ni3mip and -yin^p for nuanp and itnp in Frag- 
ment r I. 2, 20; ITy for T\V and y^S'^a for S?sd in Fragment 3 
1.4, II. 

81 Comp. Fragments X 1. 19 ; 3 1. 8, 14, 19; n 1. 18; n 1. 8, 
19; T 1, 8, 20. 

82 In Fragment n 1. 46 the words nys3 and nyss rime with 
nns-'S and nns:. Another instance of this is found in the 
Kerobah DTiam •'itsa •'xs section IP where n ,n and y rime 
together. 

^ Comp. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy, Vol. 2, p. xxxv. 
^ Comp. b. Erubin 53*^. 



INTRODUCTION xliii 

ing to some grammarians an instance of it is also 
found in the Bible. ^^ 

12. Texts Relating to Tannai Arranged 
Chronologically 

Ahu Tusuf Tdkub Al-Kirkisdni (fl. first half of 
the tenth century). 

A. From Kitdb Al-Anwdr, cited by Harkavy, 
without indicating the chapter, in Ha-Magid 1879 
(vol. 23, p. 359) and in abbreviated form, with 
slight modifications in the text and translation, 
in his .TnyominDT p. 107. 
p nN'72J7X IK DVT p -bv ni'i I'^J^m?/ inn^ ]d vys oy? npi 

"npnD'^"«D^n'?K 13-13 mSnpD2y tn^ipwnixniin'rNp . . . ,Tjai 

riTJiD n^Dson linixi id'?« r"^'?^ "iDi< '^3 «Q2n n^ -in-!« ,"7N-i5r 

.DHTJi DHJ-'ai ntv^KT '•Ni'' "rriD n"?"? n-'NiDt 

*^One who upholds the opinions of the Rabbis ^"^ 
has already argued and refuted those who say 
that the prayers are taken from the Psalms. In- 
asmuch as the Scriptures say 'that they may offer 
sacrifices of sweet savour unto the God of heaven, 
and pray for the life of the king, and his sons* 
[Ezra 6:10], how could the prayer for the life of 
Darius and his sons, he argues, be taken from the 
Psalms. . . . Furthermore, there is another proof 
from the verse: 'Bless ye God in full assemblies, 
even the Lord, ye that are from the fountain of 
Israel' [Ps. 68:27]. By this he meant the sages 

^ I Kings 18, 21. 

^ These two words are omitted in nnyo m inar. 

*^ Harkavy {ad loc.) maintains that this refers to Saadia. 



Xliv MAHZOR YANNAI 

of Israel who composed and brought forth many 
hymns and songs of praise to God, such as Yannai, 
Elazar and Phineas and others." 

B. Ibid., chapter i, section 2, paragraph 11. See 
ed. of Harkayy in Transactions of the Imperial 
Russian Archaeological Society [Zapiski]], St. 
Petersbourgh, 1894, p. 284, 11. 16-22, cited pre- 
viously by him in n-'nyo 3"i inar pp. 107-108, and in 
his 'TNiB'^a mnan nmpV, given as supplement to the 
Hebrew translation of Graetz's History (''D''''"13T 
•TKity^vol. 3, pp. 503-504, 5o6««). 

."' K J "^ n : N t n ^s nxnii Tin "i"?"! nix r« ?» t><oy'^ 

"He was well versed in Rabbinic lore and no one 
among the Rabbis disputed his learning, and it is 
related of Hai, the head of the Academy, that he 
and his father translated the work of Anan from 
Aramaic into Hebrew, and they found nothing 
that could not be traced back to Rabbinic sources, 
excepting that which is in the part relating to 
the first-born ^^ and the distinction he made 

*^ In this place the passage of Kirkisani is erroneously 
given in the discussion of chapter 13. 

^^ Bacher assumes this passage to refer to the " first-bom 
of cattle'* (J.Q.R. VII, p. 700). Harkavy (nnyoaTinaT) p. 
108 note 3) suggests that Anan possibly held that the law 
of primogeniture applied to both, the one who was the 
father's first-born as well as the one who was the mother's 
first-born, and that he based himself upon the passage 
jwvib IDS b^\ trx'? 1133 ^3 ...non found in Yannai's Kerobah "Jm 



INTRODUCTION xlv 

between those who sprang from Jews and those 
who sprang from other people. These they did 
not know where Anan took until they found it in 
the Hazanut, i.e. Liturgy, of Yannai." Harkavy 
justly remarks that the Hai mentioned here is not 
Hai the son of Sherira, but Hai b. David who 
lived in Bagdad for many years before he was 
elevated to the Gaonate, and that if it is true that 
R. Hai occupied himself with the Book of Laws of 
Anan it was perhaps with the purpose of refuting 
it {ibid.y pp. 1 08, 506). Ginzberg (Geonica I, 
158) likewise throws suspicion on the passage, 
pointing out the absurdity of the statement that 
in the entire work of Anan only two points of law 
could not be traced to Rabbinic sources, whereas 
in truth " there are barely two lines in his book 
that are in agreement with the Rabbinical au- 
thorities." His second objection that there was 
no reason for translating from Aramaic since the 
Babylonian Jews understood Aramaic equally as 
well as Hebrew, would be obviated if we follow 
the reading of Joseph Albasr in his "ins^ddn'^k axna 
where this passage of Kirkisani is quoted, saying 
that Hai and his father translated Anan's work 
into Arabic, n^3ny'?K ^"tk n^tS2j'?K p. But even if we 
doubt the statement concerning the translation, 
there is no reason to doubt that Yannai's liturgic 
compositions served Anan as an Halakic source. 



D'riDm niss. This is not unlikely, but we must not overlook 
the fact that Yannai himself borrowed this phrase from the 
Pesikta (see ed. Friedman, fol. 87^). 



Xlvi MAHZOR YANNAI 

C. Ibid.y Chapter 12 (?), section 39, cited by 
Harkavy in his nnyo an inat p. 108. 

3NnD'?K 'tis ^d niy nt<r3n nd -i'?n ""S "pnp ^3^t^ iKi«s^ kokq 

Harkavy translates this passage as follows: 

DnD:n '?:{k mayn: ^dkb^ hd Kin Dn-'JB'D nnx '•3 «m: /xr nwrn p 

To this he adds the note idndh K'ni k'?21 .p^D ^n'?3 int 
••jtyn imn Kin nxi^n ^s*? ik nn^nn injD "^y nioy^ "jaiK k"? lonn 
.onDjn "riJNi 'rxnc''' "rsx yiT:n r^ Pi'rnn r^y^ n'?yD'? N^ana' 

Without attempting to elucidate this obscure pas- 
sage, it is sufficient for our purpose to note that 
according to Kirkisani, Anan made use of Yannai's 
liturgical work. 

Saadia Gaon, ben Joseph (892-942). 

D. From the Arabic introduction to tna^mSD 
(Harkavy, nnyom^naT, p. 51). 

p ''or Y^^ffbvi Kiyc^K 'rip p n'''?y nntrnoK t« n'^t ^^ on 
Knyc''?N "rip p koki r\b^ nrya onrsi ytrin^i nty^Ki ^Kn ^di" 
N^iiD n'7ip 1N3 p nnnx"? k'?x ^^u iDnx ""nin n'?3 «r'?K r^ip^^^^ 

"Then, what I saw that I could support with 
evidence from the words of the ancient poets, 
Jose b. Jose, Yannai, Elazar, Joshua and Phineas, 
I did so. But from the words of the poets who 
are near us in time you will not find me mention- 
ing them except to praise those whose words are 
acceptable." 

From this it is evident that the tnaxmejo con- 
tained quotations from the writings of Yannai. 

Jehudi ben Sbeshet, a pupil of Dunash ibn Labrat 
(fl. in the tenth century). 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

E. From njs^ty pK mn"' mmtyn s.v. iJin (ed. Stern, 
p. 37). nty^K^ a-n ^Kr 21 tbti ^aiiy :n3a bv t^2 sonna idk i"?! 

Anonymous (from the School of Saadia). 

F. From Schechter, Saadyana, p. 73, 1. 24 

iry^xi -K3'' wn^a nj^a 93 -it «^i ^« mina nDt ^it 92 

It is worth noting that there is a striking simi- 
larity between the two metaphoric expressions 
niy'jNi ^Ni"* i^rr^a nra in this and n'^ii^np nso rn"" T^ii in 
the preceding quotation. 

G. Ibid., p. 136. Fragment li, verso, line 1-4. 

]:h) •iai«'?« ci'7«hD KspT Db:o wd yiD'?K ^n^ 'a ^k ddp ^k^ 

.cinya'jN "Kr b)p br\D nxii njy n^iya nsp^i nsya 'nts^ rny'?K 

"And the third species is rimed prose. It is ar- 
ranged rhythmically, so that the final words are 
connected with each other. But the meter is 
sometimes long and sometimes short, as for in- 
stance, the poetic compositions of the celebrated 
Yannai." 

R. Gershom hen Jehuda (960-1028). 

H. From a responsum cited in tDpST'^ac' (ed. 
Buber, fol. 13a). 

omsan en 7\mr\ trNnai o^nyiDi D^:na n'?Dnn -jina manp bbi^nrb 

^^ This is according to the correction of S. Pinsker, in 
nriiDnp ^Bip^, p, 158. The reading of ed. Stern, followed 
by Dukes in D''nnp "^m p. 2, note i, and Harkavy in 21 itidt 
nnyo p, 106, note 4, is riNta -idn-' N'71. 

^^ Pinsker, loc. cit., reads Q''3*is?. 

°* Comp. Dan. 3, 5. ^ Comp. Esther i, 5. 



Xlviii MAHZOR YANNAI 

ns^ir^ 3n:Q Kin ^d D^mv una 'iib^ j^dd . 12123 D^^n"? uidt 94nDi'?i 
mnm — D^-nD3i ,1102 '» — "n^^ nnxDi ,ii-iDT — pan pVnib' ijkb' 
^ . . DmsDn or ny niB'n tyxno ,D^^n idd3 — mSty D^irni .D-'^n'? 
b22) nnn^m ni3N3 r^^rs tnoixty . "p'st pK2 ^N^niDa 2-1 a^trn myi 
HDiinaT ,m2s nan [oni n r^i^i .ir^^yD 'rm bn "rD"?! n'rsm n'?Dn 

mir-in .non pin nan 2x2 nytrnat ,mn^'?Di ^in nai amsan 
.na-Q "rr nno^nm nnn^s rv^ nanai nana "paa rno^NiJ' "ip'yi .n^a 
tj'^ Dii 95. •'DT i^sB' n'apn 'tb' naji' nam max nan anDis y^joxai 
n^n5J> ^xr n nn . D^'^n: D^can rnsy d^jisj^kih D^iiD-'sn p mia"?"? u"? 
D31 . njB'n '?a'?ty nnoi nno "ra"? manp ts^ai D^JitrNin n^oann p 
,n^'?3nn ^a"? manp d^^dt □^Jic'snn D^Dann p n^'?p na nry'^K n 
DiD^ii'?p Iran n^i . nann D^r^jyi nnjx nan nnnai ma«a n^arm 
D^r^^yi nn^K oa n^arm D^'?nn b2b manp d^di n^n'rn^ n^n^ "t'st 
msa ms"? nanp ts^-si n^n "rni nanti'' i:yn^ ija D'?i5ra m . nann 
.nanani-'yia n^arn nD^nn'piiDD nioai nann n^r^^v ion nanan-iinai 
naiB'n ixa ny ".n^apn nasr inc' manp b^ib k"?! jno mo'?'? en 

. 'r'T n'?i2n mxD nwii iran 

^* The force of the '7 in '?inb''? and im'? is hortative, i.e., '7NB''' 
and ■ioN\ 

^^ Here ends the quotation from the Responsum of R. Na- 
tronai and what follows are the words of R. Gershom him- 
self. The expressions its mcnn and "ot T2B* in their present 
context do not fit well. I would suggest one slight correc- 
tion. The passage should read ip^yi ...it3 riwnn ...r^rD r"iai><nB' 
"DT Tsc ...nana ^22 riaii<ntt', 

^^ The responsum was also published by Landshuth 
(mnyn "may, p. 102) from a MS. n-'JiNjn nET?o by Zedekiah 
Anaw, which he says was bought by the Bodleian Library 
in 1854. Neubauer lists it as ^ip'yn ■'baB' under No. 659. See 
Add. to his Cat. p. 1153. Prof. Marx found in the covers of 
an old book two MS. leaves, one of which contains the 
above responsum, but it is no part of the ^pbn "^2^ as the 
remaining passages show. It has also the important variant 
noD Vb' manp u"3i n^n 'rna nanty uyaty cio'ii'rp 'n dji instead of b^ib 
D"''?j-in. It is possible that this leaf is part of the D'JiNJn ntt'yD 
mentioned by Landshuth. 



INTRODUCTION xUx 

R. Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (b. ii33-(l. 
after II 96). 

I. From a liturgical MS. communicated by 
Zunz to Rapoport and published by the latter in 

nanDia VI, p. 25. 

^DT b^ m '•^r '^ mo"' NiriB' o'r^yn *idkt . D^riDm ntisj '•Jix 
onoiN "-D ,imN DnDiN j^k nNmaDi"? p^ ^33 '^^k .n^"?? in nty'jx 
'n n'?D"' .i3"ini i'?yj»3 mpy i"? 'p'^ism n^n'rn ity'^x nn xjpnju' rVy 

Anonymous. 

J. In MS. Munich 69 is found the following 
statement, cited by Zunz, Literaturgescbichte, p. 28, 
note 4. "i^"?? nty'TK n '?5y im ^xr n nD*" "d^d: an !«» 

K. From I. Davidson, Poetic Fragments from 
the Genizah I (J.Q.R., N. S., Vol. i., pp. 109-111). 

^:tn3 K-ipnn tk ...'?"t ^ « r -n t n a 3 "idi ••n ^D3 pis'rty i"? q« 
♦1D1 niDDn -npoo nmna hdidk ...b^t ^ x i •• i n n n a mdi mo rjy 
,'?"T '• « J ^ -I u n a a mdi imx pr^n d^h'tn *?« ...■? "t *' « : •» "n t n a 3 



•1^ ^^ 



r nirnD 






riND 






P"1XM3 

D " y T n 



•may 

1 n«Dnp nB'N ik ty-'K "nob nanp : k tib' 

6 n-'nn nxn isti -no^ nanp :3 Tity 

II y3i ^nnan -dti "nob nanp :3 tib' 

13 n'-n*' o ir^N iy''«n "oti mo*? nanp :n Tisy 

19 air '•a ntyxi "nob nanp -.n nna^ 

23 D^jnan ba nD»T ncK-i "no^ nanp :\ Tniy 

26 anp"" iB'Ki lanM mo"? nanp :t nniy 

30 niB'n iTKib NnyaB' : n nnty 

32 bn^n n2&? nanp 

41 nDB"? xnyaty 

44 ^^D'7 mtn 

46 mDDW nnyn 

xiix-i -^"wn p'rnn 



yaiT'tD'^H nrD nrniNn -noD n" bv "noa nm nDon bv nsyn pbnn 



"pKi^^ ^»3n DXK'^ iJODa^ ,irD^ nan"? anx x*? mpD Kin ,NT-i2KiD2pn 
,nn"in nn^pnn bD imn ^3 D^ynr nr yi::pQ3 n^pmyn "pa . nm d'^jb' 
{yn^«. D-IC3 D-'nyi ny ^"i^y^ niy .d^d-'H n^T ^anD ijdd i"?! n"?! i^db^ 
li"? -jnsn ptn 3-1 no^ ,nrn -i^jixn i-iy 'rni hdd ny . nm ynijn ry^n 
«^r-inNi2ip3 Tirnn .na'^a ^didd ^d "py nyc''? "pDii tjidsd Va n"?::; ontsn 
na^ni nm '?3 ,nn^n D^yanxi ni^^iD inr ncy tinsd nnnx D^iti' ^is"? 
n^ty'?E> p T13 "pD ,D^Di3 D^B'B'i HNDD inn ,D^T"iti' HNDD -inr nb^2Q 
D^DT in«T D^yanNi rnxD yniri ei'?N qe^ insdj n'?KD ym) .inri o^ynp 
. papiD niQ^b •'ID n''3DT '?b' mm"? nnn \>y rinaoDn nnjico ,Dmn 
T ""nnD ""'sy mx'? ins^b' D^aiK'nn Dnaon p nca ""a -inti d« nny) 
m'?i3D noDT nD3 ^a .ts^'rnn'? la"? niB^in .d^hn d-'di "jy pi noii nv::n 
d^^i:j» 'tnib''' ""Dan rn dkb' psd "ra r«^ .m'^jn'? nnoiy rny nnp*' 
ynpDT ynpD Vn*? . Dti'mD rr^an t^nn ^"pn nr n^n «■? nt di'?3 -isi« "t^jx 
miDan ,D^iiN2n nmBTii D^B^nDn .niD'pnm ly-ipn ^ana :'?n-!E''' noana 
-""ana p n'ma n'?yin «sn D'?a'? ,n3\n nnsDm n^D^n nan .pty"?;! naam 
r'?y r'sn"? nTny nT^ijna' .n^aijynn myspon nn« . n'?Nn o^Dnpn t 
i±> ^b:n: nn"" "jya^ na"? n"? . cran ■'o^a c^iirsn nn'?in xin ,tynn iik 
ti"? D^yiTi n'lh^n wi'^^-'^n u:^ k'tx ,na ny D^ym: ••n'ja D'-an D-'ita^a 
n'TK na-i"? lao . nn^nrD inn mia'na nnr D"':sa miN*? u"? d^kij laao 
nnrn n-'its'^Dn p nnx /^r nrnx bv ma trnnn^ty n»a «-iipn «sd'' 

^Dan isa "laa Dnnxi ^aa-in ^niy .^'''B' ,pn '?jy on^nn^pno 
bN-iiT'' n«3 'n .-i^'rpn -iTy'?^ •'an "rty m ,''^:^ ••a ,nnK nyi bb:ib •rKnty 
.ij"? y^mnti^ p^«"iJ^ ^^^ V^^^ .:"nD'? n^y^asm nxDn b\^ n^ji:Ti n^snaa 
baa ynu nrn tDrsn .^^n^'ra ns'rsn d^d: an tn„ aran "rya Kin ""^r ^a 
p ID'Dn pi Nin 020X1 ; noa "rty mana -lontritj^ ••jan '?Kiir"' nntan 
innDa pn nsdji^ ■':aD ,13 '?3 V^^^ ^^'«^ "DTiDm ntsa ""iiX// tsran 

pnn3 DsniK' "n-'pTiy d-'TB' nn'''7Bxf -nDKOO n-mp!? n nmpna nnann ^ts' ddt ^ 

. a'j jrVi 'n ruts' 
/nanxa ^man ■''?33Nn Kiaoai ,nt j^jya nn-pnn "^ty jn-SDn pn jnu ^jk hd » 

. nnipon •'nr''jn 



in 13T tyxn 

••B^ m^nn mo "ry nann: ^3 ksd3 n'rxn n^tDrsa noTt r^y^B's . n'on 
E^DD «ini .w:^ ^b^2 n-nnn nxnp nx ^o^'?c'nty N3-iyD "^a '?e' Dnp^'?n 
DiDn D3 . njB'n "ra b\i^ iidi -no ^2"? nnnp C3''^a ^^r ••d n"Dn -idke' no 
DK ^3 na"? ninaETn m'rnna psnon n"? n'?Nn D^c:raa ^d ,n-iipD '7y i^yo 
•"D my n'td^ «*?i .n naiy Nin ib'k -no^ nn^tyn nn'mn "td DDira y^'ran 
"3 nN-i3 ^rja"? -itrK nnnpn tD . hd'th ^rsy^ nt -innD3 py tyDriB'n 
nan"? nyo 3"a ^a"? ks*" ntoi ,minn "ra "ry ^isra jmo rya n^n nnnon 
.^ntm'? tiTtJ Dty «in "nanpui ^tm'? n^")^ QtJ' «in "anp. n'ponB' "inyn "rya 

^"^atra lanaiE' D^tDrs*? "nnnp,, DB'a tyanc'n'? "["rnn ^nD "lya^ nc'p 
D^:e^Dn r^ pc'snn ^^r n^n nny unyn^ ^b"? "raN .nVBnn iina r^K'n mtn 
jtfh IK riKtn njiDnn b'^ N^sDon n^n xin dk . manp"? n'?a3iD mis iniB^ 
."tyir D^D^ ^"p^Nt .o^'rnn'? pny ib'bk 'xty lan «in 

D^yi pax Dty i'?^BNi ,nDiKo i:"? yni n"? ^^r '?b' r^n nmp id 
d'?i« .nn •'ia bv wysB'm rni'?yBD nann n*? ym: k*? p loa .njnxD 
.imm "rn: "ry on^yo a"3 rt^rBi ."pna nan n^nc' r'^y n^yo n^Dn 

risrB iNty'? Da dipd hb Tina nt^aaa iNSoaty ^"a^ ""tars '?y ^dm 
nnyn TiBDin on^'by oai ,Kmpn ^Ta onnx"? o'pa rrr^B' na .lOBna laas' 
«SDaiy •'aBO ,yma ••n'ra lanD"? inx larB ^nna nannxa^ .o^aipn oa ^n^BTn 
.'?'?aa nianpn naian '?y -nx D^s-'Bon nnai la ^-"i ^^a" ^tarB r^ 

iDa E'DD n'7Kn o^ytapn "rsr *a^na„n nx TinanE' i^yn"? ^'? ^'^ my 
K'Dnc'nK' .ntn ponpn -ibidh i"? yataty yaiaoD ^n-aa' n'ti /oa Nine' 
D^'?aipDn mpan ^pn naa Nine' o^paa i'?^bk myian nnn n^npn moxa 
."D^riD onaBa on mpa K'^a o^tarB// ^a "noxa 'j-nB' pnx ^a cixi .ia'?s« 
DnpiaD Ti'pa D^nnam ,n'?xn o^tarBa mpan riDB'a/. nnso ••n'pin nxr "raa 
nn^ myianai n^npn niDxa B'onB'n'? it^BK ^Ntr ^aBD .^"aa dhb' ^m 
noaa ^a ny nona ^p'pa on-'tyn antr ■•aBDT .xmpn ry rix '7a'?a'? ^b2D 

.iDtyn "ry nana v^ibh nioipo 

-nmn y^an*? ^osy^ nam nxn ••aK xnipn ^aB nxD nsn oiiaai 
noaai /nnyn bv nnyn n'o^n^ niiaa 'r^Kinsy ainsa-a ^t"? lo^Bna nn-^ 



.34 rr\vn ."bimn «ud3 j^y ' 
•^33„ rore "^y db' ^xr '•3 nD«3 nns *?» nso nnnon nsns n'rsj nx^Jty ^ 
.rn 'tnib'"' "•d"' nsn) "DMnnn ■'Bioa rax qb'i laE^i onnnn "B'Nns Nrra ksVkh 
.3-«B?y3) ■'W3B'«n ntpD3 "r^a wsoi «•? "^sx nnsio nniytDsy p-i k*? nnnaon n^'^on .(167 

.(165 't riKsin ,n"n .yo 
.1276 'oy '?"-iB' nnas ' 



T 3 T B* K T U 

ti{y«nn n^n ^t ^3 i^yn^ niy . n-'b^ •^noai n'''?ts''K m'?'''?33 ityx CMatyx'? 
onnna B^DnB^niy pe^xim ,D^nnn •'trKin loir dk cnne' D-'JEj^sn pa 
ciDr ux ^Kipn •'D ,D"a ij"? ym: ^M-in '?ty rnn-'pnD . nncr nnsn •''rya 
2«nD ••myn nsoa x'-dd ,pk3 n^nyo an b^ nn ]3 /jNDp-ip'?K spy 

nanni ••a tiK ,b222 m n''b2^pD rni noiNn •'^:^ ^tsrs iDC'sni py ^D-'a 
nn« ytDpa •'nNSD ^jn dj ."cm "iB'n on^'ry idd pyi ,bi^^^^ pK3 
.•"••r nnnisa D^mp*? .na ny n-'ymi Ti'ra ciiva nya-ix 'rjy Dn^trNi 
n^Dipon nyaiN ."^^r nnnoa 'lav, : onnnx mxan D"''?Dn p naiasi' loa 
ly 'raK ."'■^r mtnD// Dtya o'-tDrD naoN cjd'? nx^jDj ^a no"? in-'sr n'7Kn 
IN imoa ,nm innDn ^sr winn nan bv m'?2 yir i^nx t^'-N n^n n*? na 
i3'"'S„ ^•'2'' ^3 n"D3-in DB'a laymD "tjp^n ••'ratr.y ^ynE' ^s '?y r]Ni . ima^x 
TtN3 n n'?j<n nnnxn d^'?d3 rx ."n^c'n *?3 'te' "noi -no "ra^ manp 
nrijn nxa nxtn Dysa na njni . n^xn nnnpn '?b' p^t3 nx u*? mx-inb 
."iD^y "'^r nnnDy p "i^^i p'rn nijo'? ^"j-n^D "tdj nny nt •'3 .limry^ 

DnsDD onnij' ,i'?''i3 bB' Dnn« d^c3ddd^'?d on^ra insd: ,N"'r-iDt::p'? 
T3'''ix '?E' •n'?DDpn«D p'?n .D^py "j*^ lamna n^^b^ onTai ,n^:ir n^mna 
jT-irn nsB'n nnse^i iirNa d'':b'2 mxD nn« ."ntrnnn nn3„n p p'?m 
ana nx ipnD .la ran r« '^^b en'? n'?Nn onson rr^i onsD mn^ ^sd 
pn liNB' n^tDDDDD^!?Dn . Dn on-'ans'? ona lEi'Dnsj'^'i D^'?M3n "ryo ""^rn 
moVn p n^p'rn I'r^a^ cam nairiD ^jrn anan nx T'an'? i^qh r'^y on^^y 
D^:ty n^"? -itsaB' V'tyi 1DD n*?** T."'ana . n^^v^\ D^tmo atsiym ,^D'?2^n'' 
,'in'?"'^c5 nm I3^p"na id .N^naisjp ^atrina D'?iyn moix "^oanD rn-'TO 
na 'ryB' nayn anan "tni .D-^nntra n^ir a^nan nx -nx^ iN^^iin n'?N •'JB'i 
nrsNn^itDiD mpnyn Ds^Dina Q"''^iDn ^B^y -ib^n la^tDn nam .a*? idb' n"? 
.rya fy n\T ■«ana nx nixn'? ^^m ty^x "pa ^ar lyo"? ,n\n ^ana 'rty 
nN-iNi ona D-'KSDin D^iDrsa •'i^yo ^riDty •'T^ n'?Nn onsjon iNau'a 
••a /nnau iry nnxi . maipD nyanxa n^nan "B'n-id xsr ^^r '?i5' idb' 
nsj^K Dnnsyni ,T^pn ity^K n '?ty m ,yiTn ■'t'? en n'^xn o^tDrsn '?a 

anajty ,1-"-: w b^M mn tDODD-'ja -a .Ti^b iniD"? n\T k^ •''?ik n-iayn D'xnip'? ^ 
anan dk T'an^ D-oys'? -itysiM n«t ^aai ,jpno:^ onp\Q ana -aa ^y irnxD ana r^y 

.nniKD*? nnnD mpion 
n« Tiy «ini ^''V/'b^n n«on niitya ••nE' /inswn n-'Djan niaxD nnx Kin r^'i^ * 
Tioya .i^^nn b& ^nayn qun ri« p-nyn jit^Nnn moya . n'''?''apo D-'moy na'B'a I'jnn 
nyanx p-'nyn onnKn omnyn nyan«ai ^r:i"« nrni«a nayn I'jnn nx p'nyn oB'n 
OB'a ymj nt naoi .irsniK-n mnni D""yaB'n nuin .Diaaio ,D'?^py ^tr — n-'jr n-ouin 

■ /n'^BDpn. 



BuRKiTT, Facsimile VII 



(N (D'^a 3^'' Kip"!) 



.na^i^D ^b^^'i nrv .m^^ nxe^jn insiD** ok 3 
r'nD VT" TV "i^iD"'*' .nDH d« b"'n "TiDn (mj; 

•'''Dy omcD n:ira •':rn Djan ■'"sy n-nn^'n moE' "s"?? .onsDoa d'^jdidd 
bv "DT T2n on^D "ry nsd'? Nnipn bare' c^:d"'d nta inu •■jjn a'^y "aran Djan 
(VT B'pi^) i2"'pni3 b^ n'C'tyn rfSKiaiaisa n'sdj innon bu 'a nns.* .loipD 
,(112^113) njic'xnn 'aimsa '3 Tity .(vts'-pma) n-'trDnn 'Jimaa '2 nnty 
nr'irsnn '3112123 is'Oii (11 irpnia) Vi^pii^ b^ n^z'Z'n 'jitsiM ^•'nno 'n nnty 
,(II in't-'^b) Mib'^'V) b^ n'iCTi 'Altaian Nsoi 'n nnc ,(i nxb^o) ixy-n b^ 
ri-'B^'^B'n n"'a«iJit3iB3 't Titri (iv o-'pnia) ts-'p-in 'tb' n'-yann '3112132 'i -\'-\^ 

. (Ill ti^pnia) 
. a^o 'yn ■''733«n Kiaoa '"y ^ 
. •'"an b^ qnn p^D Kin pao -^b^ ^ 
'n ^•'yo ■''733Nn Niaca '"y . nanpn "p'rn q"'3"'^sd n-'-'ann ciaoDn < 

. D^pbn yETi*? np"7nnD nanpi nanp 'jaty dc "n-KnriB' 

. 3"" — a""" 3""" Nnp'^i '"y ^ 

. a'''' .n"-' nnai « 

. on"? aita"? I'raDE' QniD"" \t vn nmo inp"* dx .nm'ra ^ 

DHE' ^31? D'y33 nixnc^ : N^D K^a D"'y33 7\:uv>n '?''n .n^oa : b"^ * 

n"? n""'3E' .ns-'a nnpa riNBTi ;'7a\n n-oa rfr n'''>3ty ;i'7tya nty mna . nyan« 

". pV nosa 
r3D ,n3a'7 mna «'?« ""^ }'x^ : 'a nnB'na ,D''y33 ncna xnaon '^'^n ^ 

.(.K^D .i^HNT nNsin) '"lai n3a'7 nxiy jbd"? "p^n nxsyn n« maib 






nn">'?y r^rb n'rnin miNT^n Nin n^'?sn trn^s ^"ra ^iK -nmnu niDipo 
nrm«3 Dm« ^nr-'Si -laon mna psy "isa ino ''noB' n'?«n nnyn"?^ .tin 

^wiJl ^"7113: nnoHD ^31, nat? .iro ann*? n'a .pn«^u 
.p»a^ "HNTn n-nnn pi iT'E' TKl 

]KTTn«T ^T :3KT IH T3 ^Knt^'' 



K T>12^ 



(^»DViJ |>t<'»i -itaJ Dpi 
b:^^^ KiSjf (rn::^ nno 
mry my ^iT'y n-'-n-'y 

Din •'D^'DD vir.vTi nvn 






(33ip^n^ n-'-'Tin 
nn:j:i nmn:! 



p"'nT' 



••3 
•"a 

••3 
••^ 

TV 
TV 

'V 
'V 

y 

'V 

'V 
'V 

'V 



12 



13 



14 



15 



-IB'T'I am 16 VIII 

m^tr'T p^:^ •? 

p r''i[y] 

p2 ''[Mil] 



■•^W ['VlM^''^ ]nv2 2i 



l-n 



D n-'nDi n^DO [n'?yai '?^N5r T"n]ii Nsni ynio nnx ^d 22 viiia 



myna lawB' "i'^e' u-'NB' ninriD djdjh^ : noNDn '7B' ibhts kihb' ^"j ' 

•Msna )3i jnaiona p imptr taren nay^ noi: nrn Brsn 'a Tyn*? •'iki ' 
nDj?"?! .p^-iBTin •'^Dy -im: nrn tsrsn a^xn ••'dj? nou lonpB' ersne' nDxrt» 
mn ttren cnNn "ry D'xa o-'yjjn j'^-'aE'sc nn'ayn D^nm nbin ompn tDrane^ 
Kin "JBTI ursa D'';":yn nnm .mxn Nann" tib^2\:;2u D^aia D^trynn jcnm I'^in 
roy^ nr D-'aran "3^2 cnnnn D'^^ajo nt "sbt .i"? ompn araa n^riyn -no nan 
israa v'^n niNae' j"':yn noy^ mn "JB'n area v^n niNa Ksojn I'jyntB' ny nt 

. n«'?n pi jiB'Kin 
. nb-Na nimpna 'n nnn 'n aina"? iy?iy naion ^b- Din nn .n" n" "r's ' 



Tuno 



.'nia^yi KMT nnt^'s «^i .'mm d3 Om2'» dk 4 

: (o-iis^a ^3^ Ksn^ in::^ .nc^n ^d^ Ksna nox nmn 

»nK^i< IX ty^KT pDT 7 VII 

"•an inn m (^^a^n '>^ 9 

^tyo rT\2 nsD DV2 •'D 
mT"*^ n^^b inty*? no-''? •'3 

.".TJiDDa TB'y* :('o .3": D^'rnn) imna ty^ bB' Dinn .nprnro ."idi'^d 2 

.(.n'^j ,NDp K3n) na-'T msns jic^a » 

. N""— " ,:"' NnpM '^y * 

/n ,'3 na^N * 

. (n"' .t"' n-'ycT') n'7m nra ptJ''?D ^ 

niB'M Dnaits^ .on-^y m<2^ .o^yjin rn"- vk naa'ra lyaa" dn .noiVD « 

. njnon *?« 

. £3*3 .j"" xnpM ® 

mxn "^y d-«3 D-yaan j'j-'sb'sb' mT3y b'-'B' m:nn "^y noi: nrn aran i» 

Dnaun n-rayn ^3 njoat iisd: dxt (pd: db'i '' ymsD ny3U .XDinjn '"y) 

nynty .d-'DT nn-'DB' ,ynn iib'"? om .r""'? n^iy msDD "3 «st2i n'?Nn nnipoa 

irNB' riN 'rtijn :«": myi ,n^3nn nx "jmn :«":] bn ,nnn moa ,nny "i'jj .niet 

,-ipD' nny n^yon ,ni3:3 .dbti nans .de'h 'n'rn .mr nm3y ,ryn nns ,[i'?B' 

n'jB'cn .ipB* '7B' nucno SB'inn .i'tb' irsB' mnn3 D:3:n ,rnn ns bpbpan rin 

rars nin "^x n'?3 dddk n"? i:'?{y ]t3^'2n djd« .mm nsna r^"o .Q^nx r2 D'no 

.(3'"' mn '^y) -nisn n"?! mpn x'n ix"? i03 i'?b'd ej-'Din nt noy^i 



5 « T'ltr 

•Dprnn pni:i:)i iippi:n lipai 'lannn-'s nnns 38 

[linjj-n] iinvix 

'ii''V^''i nnta^ i:''D'' in^dt ia"'X''p :inp 39 

liwn. . . . nti'XD Dim 

ii'ipm: pniri c]i2^t2D ii'>::n 'n'':intr 'ii"'p:T li^'mc^ 4o 
nta:i i::!^** nnn man 

liyNi «np^m liDix ntr^n orn kdidi (nato^N «sn 42 



""'2' -nrno 4 

"^a ^y nam d^did nya niM t\im hdjd pT.2) 23 

n IDE' 7D «j . . . 

2 t^lpl DO Ej'-ipa nnsin 24viiib 

"isn 

''ii'''ipD]o 'p Toni ''i^aoD 'p "in^tD [""ynro] .... 'p'p'p noK^ 25 

ITi^ty 

. . . . H*? ny 'p mm D^ip-" njn mn^ n"? ny 'p naio . . . . y-i 26 

. . •DDn^B' nax^VD Dnny^ 27Viiic 

. . . .m iKT" . . . ""-D nnn'? o^'tdst m-no "td^b^ ^yri i3p'?n '"'■'D 28 

nnt< D^oyD 29 

^[riNB'] ^ n^tyD"tt (J^nx^D:} ^:in 

[mmnvJpK^ tdd T]^pm n^sii njm^ 31 
•'ii; 'nnsDai •'np np^n 

np . . . . 'T-'TD J^lpIT li'iiS '•iiN p'^yiT] 32 

'>£3DDnt 

[nnn:i^ n]^ts^Dii 'mn-'ai pi"* nnn::i nmT 33 

12 "Donn^ mn 

(nii^i'^u^ 12:1ft:? 122 nna^"'^ty a'Vtn mn::tai n-'S'-'^tj' nssD 34 

1 n^:iiD'nsr 

^Dtyin p 1D3 ^Bty n«iDD ^sfi' n:3 1:^:13 35 

jhd:: «''n i? 

Ti'i'in Nin nnx ""^ ii''''m i:im« li'i'^n:: dti-'D 36 

pTi:5^£jj ntap: 

Ti'imx nnDi 1:1''^:? n&XT la^inis^n nno 37 
Mdd ■]ni''Dii'ny 

nsT «ipM (t^B .lyan nssin) '■' ynm NDininn bv now hth tarsn > 

/m nra'TD ynxa lano mnsn... nnao i« nxB' ne^a -nya rrn"' o mx^ .- i^csa 

ntn 'TE'on dn tncji ioxjb' baa it nxtJ' ; "y^jn cmaa -idn:e' hd"? tdt 2 

.BmitynN ny nsoD ion n-'ne' -na ms'^D n nnsD : "^'an EmD"? tDT ' 
KB3an nnx ■??! .pT ony lixm*? n cnao'? Tiy» '"y .=^^3 i"?"^ '"^'^ * 

. D'a:}: 's c-i «Din:n '"y ir:3 pmn 
■ry mnao nn-ntr ^r na'rD it mna rVjn Bmon '?y nm: nt dj * 

/131 b«1B^ 



7 3 T-ir 

TriBiri y-iD "liiB^ "ns: '2\ <31D mNi'? d^o^ anx D^^n V2nn sr^Kn ^d 7 
naaiy ""d -ik'tdh •'js'? -io«n "rxi tib^s ns N^tDnn"? i^s nx inn ba 8 

H'T HB'yD ns "r^m I'np "^y 9 

invnx pm:j (j'^iiDNi O'^im-'V^ ''^"jn msD "o " 

KBT V"i"i''5f» VJ"!^ ^^'^'^ ' Qt< ns'in nty« ^^"'23 ' ' 

»jnD nxxn nnTTi inEjnn jnn idkid^ (I'^vriiy mrivin 

mry^ 'ii J^ynsn ;a nyisn yij kdi3 mm pan nxm mnD"? v^na 13 

11N tr-'Ni mn ya'-i 

03"? nnin 'Ji "•«D''Ki'?nn '?d'? «snn o^jij; !?d'? n'rion 'Ji "omasy'? 15 



. n*3 ,'3 nyn » 

.'t .i'-p wbnn « 

.n*' .n*"? .Dty » 

/n ,'n n'ynp « 

. y'B'a miB^Min nanan na^rnD n^n ^ 

)•<« nairn he^j? on, : 'a q^jro jmsD KDm:nn bv nnu nrn uran ^a » 

."r'ry nnn njnsn 
.'a .n"" Nip''i " 
.'t .n": n-'ytr " 
.'3 .f'Dp D^'?nn " 

.'3 ,3'P DE' " 



BuRKiTT, Facsimile V 

[mnn nxn inn'^i nno"? nnnp] 

^nmoa its mai D*»''n (^nnnox i-'^'n^:: M\mb ddt 

'i? 'pan •?« K2im imnti orn jmson mm n\nn nxt ^0K'? hb'd 5 

r3'02 my: nnn 

.'3 /-i"" Nnp"! ' 

TK ...jjT niir K*? iHD : («'^ c)^yD ,nyni3 riKsin) 'o ti->yD yntn KDininn b^f 

.'131 Di'?{y ok'td «"?« n^spn "jd"? jnoiy 

: ^'m ]wba Kim .nnniyni ir'?3 niyDtyos 'idj^ "ryDS B'Dntyo jo-'sn * 
nrnn cnNn ^y niN3n rnsnty Yin (ii^d n-nos) '7n-ik?» '^ty jjidd noj'? IB-pas' 
rKSin) Komin 3*3 '^y .'m 'a D'^nin 'n nnB'3 nsdj nt"? noni .insito'? ciid3 
...iniN mriD k^» nt Dn«3 n- isityD^ n'apn "^ab ntyp : (T" ^••yD ynin iy3i3 

/131 HD- n itn 

. «'" n''"' ""jtyD '-y ' 
by nDOty y:i .npiy" iiy3 pnon" ti^riB' Dn« "33'? min .T'apnB' ■?*■) ' 
iDDonB' ^^D'rt> ynison rmn n-nn riNT idnj ns*? : '3 ti^yo y-nsD «Din3rin 

.r'?y pNS D'yajn Tn"? 
.'3— '« .n"" Nnp-'i * 
6 



2 T-TK? 



innm hdi na'y nn^n m -dm n t^x ivyb nx hdm -i*?! ,n3[i] 28 

nxt HD'^-i 
tynp ^31"''' rmo ynr liOD ynn ny\s yi "py lamn na yix^i . . 29 

JiTinrn ymtfa^o^n. ...[«] 3o ivb 

mmn^i ^•'iDts^n^ mnn xmp nnpn 

B'ND n:in3 m •'-12^0 (^^^ [n] 31 

ti'N nanx3 pn lilts'^ n''pDn 

(»■?.... 1JT[tl'^] [:i] 32 

pii n''-'' jnn iy:iia iv''">^i 

mjjDH nimip -ib'^ [i] 33 

mp:? '>V::"'Di rnnxD ddi^'''' 
D'Ti^ttD □■'m [:a] (o[n] 34 

cniT'^n («o[T] 35 

O^anjaniDiiv [T] 36 

ti;, t-lSi-^i (n^ [n] 37 

i^jjs Q''^^ ">"i^n 1^ ^^SN TDn 

(nDpT** N^ nvnn [t:] 38 

OapD -["ion"'''! fj^D yiDU'^ M^^b 

N-'tom s'^ r\\i;y\ i^^wi ....[*'] 39 

nnia*' ny n^i lis [Q"ri<] 4f v 

mn"' Nin Trm ym^*a ("»[:!] 42 

nine nn^ mt:'''! nnta'* naya nmts^nn '•iTn nm 



n:i n'7B'^ 'ji ipmo ^bivj nna'ai Dn«n n^sinn Nairn npis I6 
^^rnxD-n ""-^ nox 2']'ipb^ pmi? n\b^ di'tc' D^nac^ n^3 i<-in 'ii 17 

rrnD '2 

D-'mnji «iiti^i nriK mri^ 'r >9 iii 

ror\'^ &'«n n2x:n ny-i^' 'rsts'ii 20 

(^"^n^in tsitys -D ,nDV» ]'\['s;b] eia'S 

^23 r/::D ^nnn M 22 

lys-'s fn yn 

en"? -jma 3211^ -i"?^! p\\:ipi<\ incn [inDNi] "nssp iys3 iiiya a'D 23 

n"? nanK n'pyx •'d 'ji 7r'?^3N'?i i"? o^oin^i [D'^tyNi inniNi in]ND-iNi 24 

sn"? r« 5jnn N\n ]rs i*? iNip nm[i ^3 'n dn: ixa-iN] 25 

n^iD^n"? isan '?3 •'3 (iVnNmts nns^n n"? mntD i^sd ny . . . 26 iva 

•73 D21 [? n^yi'?] 

''s ,9n3nK n^nn n3ny nno: ,n3D c^un n3r n"? ly d 27 

ny 3tyn iyii« 



.'3 .T"? n-''?nn » 

3 myn 3 moy '^^y'? '^y ;.t : ^ip * 
.'3 myn •''73J«n Nnoa '^y ; nac'i : 'ip * 

'rfrnn n«iDi Dr6 kid 3'k« "rHnB^ ri« nao n'npn j^k^ :3" h'j'jd "y » 



3 T")2y 

BURKITT, FaCSIUILB 1 



IV^: ^nnjn nr^n^i nno^ nnnp] 



VI 



non NN-i DTN^ n nDTN (KJn n^T^ ' 

nDiN n^TD [n^] 

npn "piEi b.... nN. . . : . . n3« ■'ii. . . .3: stD^ 2 

np-'^iD ''nn [^^] 

n»''ts' :d:t ^b 3 

-Dials' NM n^MV ^i^TD (33nD , ^ i tainn p*? 

n-iiD': J<^ n^ nmn^n n-innm (" pi miDD*? 4 

T^: 1D3 n-n'?n ntrivn ,^t'n nxnp n^m mD^ 5 

D-iy^im j<Dt2''D N. . . . .[cy]"':'' T'n ntr« bn mv"i 

n^V^'^h '»"' noK [Di^D] pH. . . . [D'lJyB'nV. . . .id ••d (n^nian 

DDnrnx |>["^^< n^33 myi^j yjj •rinii p3i 9 vii 

iryty ira^ : ('■< ri-yo nyau nxsin) 't q^yc ynisa Nmmnn "^y nou » 

.'"^2^ nyisa imx np'?D ni^iy n^apn na ...rssn 'p-nbti? nyn mx ier 

VDS ityyjB' nDi'?3 ,Q''bv;bwQT] D^crsn raa nn rnnw Nanr nrrr arEjn » 

'nty ^^y rnnx «3n tnnn ^ty m-xna nnx nnx rnn. '?b' npy» ,n'?n3 d^b^b' 

n'y-in njc-!? -laynx m"? ,'t ri'yo .nnayn htb''? rnxnana : noNO '^y) n-^on 

.ni'?iD3n n'^jen ba* n^na pn annn jyanti'n nt 'jsai ,(!0I 'ay 

II 



J"' "mna lo 



pD '»:{n'iB'i n^D '>n:jnD (»o[n] 43 

::'iTV"' "omT mi*" nvi (j[T] 44 

'airx lYinna DDipn'' :nT''«D ^bb>i v^^t wsjn 






1 nnsi^ 

BURKITT, FACSI^ILB II 

[n^'T' ^D tr-^K ^"^in nnn^^ nno^ nsnp] 

ID [3] nn "its'X 2 

« nav^. ... [1] "DnD«n p:: ni 

, . . .nn. . . .D« in:{''''1 in-'ti'^? I •»Dn 3 

[n] OV. .15^1 "itaStyDI liD IV . . [T] 

omoKi '?K-ity'' ""in "tk nan lax"? priK "pni n[{:'D] "^N •"''« -qti 5 
^^\i<m icddb'o uod kid kiui nrx ':^ wn Kot: [D]n nti'nD 2T 6 

p"? 'JT ^ait^ni my-in xsn 
'1) 7'n ^3« ^D nnyn^i eonnK i'tdx^ D^jni iDina d''J3 i't^n^ nnx 8 

ii-iD^n itrx nD3n ntrx 
9nsT ]2 nx 3X31 n^ar ^"^ nrtN'^ ntrx nx ^3 'Ji su-u^i^ri nminai n** 9 

.'3 .i^D «npM 1 

/3— 'n .i^o nti' « 

/r ,'n pipan » 

.'n ,'■' nnsT * 

/■" /n 'TNptr'"' 8 
na-in iksdj b2H .^"jn pidbd p^n crx "•'''"' ":« o nnyn^i^ : D"''?Dn » 

."yNptn-a 0-050 

13 J'" .'i -'tb'o 9 



oonmnT "rx "i (^<DniiaDi ddit ti 

nKLDiJta N:3in ]£ 'n o^DTn 'T 12 

unD n2 iNDtan ^« "^ I (-=diit y 'D i3 

n*"^:);^ ^bV <'° '"^ (^°^. . . Abn cnTipin::! o 

("D. . . .p^D •'iSD vii^ '^ (^==yi: la^yn ^« 'D H 

mmps n"»:"!"'D "iitn 'y 1 0''''^''^ r.-rann 'D "5 

(BDn«>yi:3ip . . . . a^ 'ij nm^ ^2 nnpisi 'Ej 

v^' N'ln'! niii'ii n (ymn ^yi imn ^v V '^ 

[D]"'K'ii''n nv'intt' n^ 'n I r\bn n^ nirN t ]a 'tr '7 

an-'^n ""nn dn nn^nDty d''^iv[^] whd o'inij'Ti is viii 

pi^f n^Dm n^n:i 'p iN^'iCp] n 

npiv nr^^N n. . . . •'tv- • • • 'S^ nns n^ -irD** hn^d 'i: 19 

pi 13 («ynw •'3 'D 'y 

nph miTiDT npnxn 'D ixnD nanB'-'i ntr's* 'J 20 

^mTr tt'vn t^'? o ] [2] 1:3^-1 '? 

li-iin n**:} •'y:;''! 'lO nnta d:i Nsn '^ 21 

•p-pii n-^n nn^TVT 'T (2*; ^: 'n 

Tin^T 1^ 'H Nin iy:i"'ii i^inv "i 22 

nn'':}in ip n 

'« px n:Dn:3 ^nn. ... o 23 

b \y2n2n n^'^n'? ij-'jnn nsin'? iisnn ny n'?'?p 24Viiia 

T^o 1[Ey^"i]p3 iJTOK d:i "msi "rnni pb^n iJE'npn nctrbi 25 

ns "psDi m'?33i n^33 nb nsinm n^^ j<-ipT d"d ui)p 26Viiib 
IDTcmK n'?m]D 'p iniriT dind 'p in'?m "i^d 'p p^'pp nax^i liy^ 27 

V P'PP 

. b^ wmat 'P ^rmpnsa n"?! ijnbnrn d^u mijnN 28 

DnDiy*? irsryD nD3 «^i 'P w^miri:: 29Viiic 

"iiDr nnuB* n"'K'^"i I'^iab x-jp iidn^ "ra 30 

nnoM nnnt:' NDT"! . . . . nnynB'D^pMnnna 31 



15 1 T'TE' 

inanx iod insDiD ijod x o^yT. onx ^^n tsyo 24 

id"? ... . n^DDn p "ry i^n Nin 25 

ntin imiD3 nn'?^ nan r^nn mxi trnx on "itrn .... [n]SDiiDD 26 

"in^Ji''?! "laia"? DK ^3 N-|3^J K"? 27 

mn ^:3 n [nn] niDDa l5'U^< 28 ivb 

mn Dxnn n::: n^'n'' ]s 

'DT d: d''d 1^ nis'in nran 29 

nn . .^3:2 [nipnjn ipT::n a.T 30 

m bv D"'0 N*?! D-iD ^v [m '^"'^"l] «^ 

□''::tt a^^niXDi i^-'^in *^'-ip jnr 34 

'D^nnT ^jfv "ii^v ^'^i< ^i''o 
ni':2''ts'n v;^^^!) nxTsn *.^^in 35 

ntiDir nnm n:in"'2 nn:"": ly 
on''^ ^cn nc-'x "iKtr Oit:'. . nni dvd 36 

mn 11:2 mr-'n mn^i Dn*"^ p bv nirx 



DID ^DD n^a nn*'^ is"":!- am 



37 



mx^ :(n''3 ,n''3 nrx) man pn d'di praan "75? i^mE' no nr"? hibti ^ 
mn n"?! mn bv pa-i n-on n"? nan xmc* nya's m ri*m d'"0 rsn i'?pd'd n\n 

.(i^oD r\2-\ NipM) 't3i "D^an ^y pai 
nytyar, : ('' ci-yo nyau nxsin) 'n ri^yo y^^o NDin:nn ^y nou * 

."nyisa "ipi ^ayn nx "rKntr i2'yr 



. . . .ixn mr ^b i nKn"*: . . . .di mpDD •> 

naji ""D ^v fl''DT' niy ns. .D 

[1] ']DD '>^'\p '2 

DTiD TNti^ D'' b xin niiB^ 

HIT :ivn a\'T' itt^s:: i n'»''nn >3 

D^nnn ix mr dn ns^n m mu inxDiD .Tnn n[Nn do] 

B^DHM n^ND'' Kin 

«•? -iB^N ly iTimnD •'D-'d ikiu jin -nan 'ii 'nrain rT"! V'^o' I5 

•Dnnsy^ B^anai a"? '•niac''? i7 

-|T pirn::. . .pmn irT p''em Ov ,7iV ^vr: '9 

n''vn B'mn jCn*"] . . .xn nsD^i . .in. . .n-iinta n^D^ nm'' 20 

i2'»«sn''i rniy" ,irNsn i:''nN ,ii''nn''ir trian^ 21 

[^2N3T 'Ji] 8i:tyan^i i^ i^kst"! [qtis Kin o 'n "^k] nm&':i id*? a-o 22 

•'jyti'in NDiNi 'n 
snnN "n'r^nn ^3 [nyjyixi] 23 

.'3 .I^B NnpM 1 

.n'V /J -y^D « 

. n"' /n avN » 

/K ,3"^ n'rnp * 

.B^s .ta"- •''rtyD * 

.': .T^ap n''7nn ^ 

. n" : np ' 

/n ,'1 ye'in * 



III 



17 



n T'lE' 



'n riD''-! Tiy 

*'n 1^ nD3 Dim 



'3 mND"':fin]n52 

in DN D''S''D 53 

.T'n"' TDn nDiD 
("spiD mpD ]nn''D 55 
':3 ^n DX nnon ns-ixp 
':ji ntr« inn ininB' 56 



'3 



^«in «DtD nn pni 



57 VII 



nb2'^ p 
IV^"- P 

nnJ'' 

n'»m'' 
Dini'' 



ne^n Kin 

dT «in 

p''«Dl 'n 

nn? 



nin:j 

nan 

nv^in 



'n 



'n 



::':«•» p^ 
V'i^^'> pb 

nntD'' 
n^D*" 

DD"* 

nnD"' 
(Ts tails'* 

«"'P'' 

natJ^"' 



i^-imnp Y? «"iP'' 



n:ia 
n^P 

'ii''«'i^nn ^ND Din*' 



'b 
'b 
'b 

'b 
'b 
'b 



B'llX «in 58 

'n59 

'n 
'n60 

'n 
'n6i 

'n 
'n62 

'n 
'n63 



64 VIII 



2*, _2^, nanoa ' 

o3'p .ti^'p D^'?nn » 
.'3 .^D D-''7nn « 

.'3 ,l"l2 Nnp'T 8 



""J" TIT no 16 

n:}T Kin insDitD:^ nnn nxDiiD . . . .na^x 39 v 

D''D. . . .'•a TDn Tm ,D''Dn2 'n"':i ^o 

(3SD"'aT nifi'L^tS'::] nnx iDn ,n"'D'' ntyi^ti'^ n^^b^ ^b^l 

'pn::: «''n d-id^t v^^^ PP^d pta nn''T^ ]n 4i 
(ispmD . . . .nii^s ^i KDta^ pipn"" in-'-'^n n«i 
(nsxato'''' «*? p"iT DK mn^ ,'kd:d'''' mnian pn □« at 42 
SDt^a "iinta niiB^ it: ""d ,kdid mpDn •'nn in-'-'in 

nmo xin Vis"? nti^K d''D'' o^nno-'n^ d:i i'^^nhn^'^n'^ 
:i3 a KDiiaD 45 

Taylor, Facsimile 1 

i^fiiD na^n*''' ,n''''nni d« di«di ■'hd 46 

3«'? p i»D n^n*''' ,nND [y] 

pnn nn-'^vo'? n^ts^i ,]"nvn ::n vbv ^l^P ^^ 

p-inK D''"!'' msts'xa ,(«^ ["I] 

inKDitfi *•»"» nx iD^ty ,(2^1^112 ma^ n^tr'' o^tr 49 
innnta ^v mnra ]:inp [k'':i"' mT" '':n '>:^ ik D'»"nn] 

M-itr3D DT rrri^ o pm 50 vi 

»iits^i N-'tartD OsTiB mn''! Titr:i ts^N s'ln inn mo: 

.'n .t'o NipM '^y 3 

.'3 .l^tt NIpM * 

,'n .'n n'^np » 



Taylor, Facsimile II 

[3] m«Dm mmnD mmi^ 2 

<pnnN n [i] 1:5 n:in :it n-'-'mn 

n"»:3n'ip mmnts^ [•«] ;jD 

nirn ""a ^k nnT-j ny k'?3 n'-m d^d*" non an an^ -a ntrxi d»3 
Dra 'Ji 'N'-n n«otD n-'nn nriT'j ••a-'a nnxDiia an ""D^ •?a nm-'j bv 6 

nD*" D^n'?sya '3i sj^iix axai nVm nra n^sp nj •'nnan lyiT -ipaai 7 

mVstJ'a^ m[pD]n 
]na x*?^! DDK 'n^K «^b "rxity^^ n^ni d^d^ 'ji ^n^an si'^T' d^^-i^ 8 

Win 'Ji «min abb) nna 
eamya nmntj' D'''?n'?n rmsip ta ana 9 

ii'>TTX ^SD I li-'aiiim lanvx nx"'*» «^t i^-'T^: ]"»an nrnva 'o i» 
D">anT '»DroD ^^ onna-'y caD K^a •'wna cmiD 

19 .«'- ,'n K'^nty ^ 



'"':'' inn a 18 

i3''::D ntaD p^"* irnra v'li mi"* 66 

li-Ti-nn Tin '?^in'» ii"'mn''ii j:)^nn*»i tynnni'* 68 

irK'rinD^ irxsTn irriDDDi wnnn utibidi u-'Kin irmni« zoviiu 

ir^nnn 
\yp:n iryjioi irDTn iranDi tin'':n trTinoi irtrann irnaK^ai 7i 

•'E'-npD ^rtrnpDa "i^tynp'-n^ irtrn^P D-^yjii irB'npn B^npn latj^i 73 

ItypnDiD 'p p"pp n^«"npi i^ cmDi i*? omw^Di isyr '•nk'i: ntrx 75 

T-tmnD 'p ^Vn 
mp^m m-i^n nDtron -|trp3^ ntyx 'pa'? 'p p"pp -isninpisD'p nan 76 

iB'K "td"? 'p 
iD3n m[D^^]3 inpD^ ib'K b^b 'p iT^nni snit^^n r'''?m3 n^y-iT 77 

[Dn]Diy'? ns-int viiic 

r'^n*' DN D"D yB'DD impJ*? Dnx"? S^ND*' D« D«D nDK"" ^3 78 

ytr 1*? nn'? Dn«b -id*''' dx 0"d ytna innr'? onn^ 79 



.n*^ Ttnn '$< nne' "rp^ '"i? * 



21 n T'Tty 

nya nnai tDsti^D nnn naipD n-i^ D'?E'n^ "dt dni irs 24 

«3 *?« m^p nn«i IV. 

mp n'rn bv ''nnay mrfDi nnmy n^a^in nn^ny b^i'tet "^y djdi« 25 

^3 m\v t\t: '?yi trmp nac' ii ^yi 
i'?n n^n Nin ib'k d-ix no^y n'?'?^n ^d n'?n B'npn nnaisi' n"? 26 

.31 n\n mn ie'k onxn mniD nxD^t: ^3 riTJi n'?^yn i: n^n Kin 27 

7^mni irsirtD nnam ii^D"n« r^'^n ny iron "irDna lyn^^ ijntr^j 28 

niy"'N^ nnivt2''n n''nv^ nss^Dn tk 29 ivb 

hin-iv"! '•n^'V iv^ P"'i nn 30 
n-ian ^n**:!! nv^i n^''Bi 
D^Dn an nt^'K d'^dt nB'"'Dn n2 3i 
*atD3i 012113 ]ip3"i nDTN '•Di iinti'T nn« 

i^'iD nDTNT mx '?v nj<:an •'3 Dn« m 32 

naiN •'D"'D^ nonn mn 33 
(npnDi«^ iriT'Tnm T»t:''D3 inT'Dvn k^ •'3 

laip nv'^^^ inD3n"'3 •'3 01313 ]ip3T 34 

1^ niTD niD D13 "IS :iTD31 

0PD'«a2a nii''">5 i^iTDi n^m '•di tit 35 
o'las ns*ia3 u^yi^'L nn •'3 
nnD3DM Dn''S ^v nn^3is>M n''D3n 36 
Opdt Kin I'll* ''3 m^ ni Kin -js dt I'ln 

i^r^^n^nb n''''isi nn''n n^ Cjii'ilD 37 
NaiDD nniD nn^ nap dn ^3 

.»*■> q-'yo ynisa nya^n XDinam :'n naci' •'a'7C'n"' '•'y 2 
/131 "niayn lys n i^nsyu : n^n .D^a nan n'B'xin '-y » 

.'1 ,'3 mj '■'y * 



"'•'2'' nuna 20 

0PD''Dn p nxDiia *'p"'m D''DTn n^^i:!!:: h^db^d o'lynp 

::2-nD XDta^ nxDita •'naitr :idiv'2 I n^i pino ^'•.n:^ '3 

nir^iai t^i^h n«Diia '•^in a5ti''» «^ ds*'^ p nnn 

b:i^ n"? n^rf nmj asB^Da nan ••D"' 'ra r'ry aai^n nt^x 3Dtrnn "pa I4 

r'?v 3trn -ic'N ^'?Dn 
n'?^'?a D3 ir:y oyai □•"mxaD rD** ba ^3 'it 'man nxDitsD n^n"* XDt: 15 

D3 n*? 235y ah 
w^3 n'?y3 '?3ii irnpns b^ nny 13331 i:'?3 «Dt33 ^nji 'Ji ^'pnn nt 16 

'11 *i:\iiu^ nn3 ir:iyi 
n'?i3Ko nsne^ nn\m D^Dna r6'?wD n'?a{yi ^v'^2 ikid ii«d '73 -3 17 

«n3"T' nosy n^iix i^n*?! n3 is 
nbni '»nn ^taa CPn^D:i d'»xvi nV'^nD nan** "* 

iS'Nn K13'' ni^K b3 fi^Ni lixa nip" 21 

D'»a3 nnsmNn '>12 D^'ca f rrr'n^ 
v. yni DN 'ii sptya ^310X1 "l^'ryD y^i vi-quh) D^a3 i^n-iNi 30 23 

m:3 n«is nx 



.(I'a .I'n xnp-'i) "nmj nNooa, Kin ainan jik^ ^ 

.j^a ,'3 nbnp » 

/n /B Df * 

J3'3 .'d or « 



BuRKiTT, Facsimile FV 



[D-'jnan ^a "lasn nas-i n-iD"? ns 



lip] 



('N S'"D Nip'1) 



n''nntDt2 «in'' n'^on ntDD^ 






nn^tD riD ^3 nnnrn o^pmtfDn n«T u^^bi^ niiDi 



Dts^sni imp*' K^ nnnp 



VI 



(lapmts'n «b n:nn:3 ""d ^vi 
n^ns im'? ni'':: ntJ^x nii'nDn 

B^nip nt^*'? □''nntaai D''iynpn"'a ^ip •^t^-nps E]tt'n''p nn^sTi 
''«at2'»'» n"'V"'»^ iniDi« nti'N d^^"? 

/t ,'3 m'7n« '^y ^ 

.'3 .N^D DE' * 

D'Nn '"D may '7D-'3 mxa nVnrion T\bi2:i ^^ronurh iB'sn"? rin::i* ^aso * 
N3n Tnna pi ,('3 ,'« n^ya'^) ^nbn: d^33 rtJ''70 ."Pu nnn ""^n-Jtt h'pdd tyDntrn 
'-y) D^Dya"? D'B'?nnD "rm "n: D^'rysnty ^jdo "n2» nnn "n'rmu n'?D3 ti-Dne'n 

.('« ."rn 'y min-.i2 r'ro 
23 



8 VII 



10 



•'•'J'' inn a 22 

(npnm'' "6 n:i'^2n in'>r\b'\ nt^«D ti'''ns''^T 
('2pD'':}n n:: "ivti'^ V^**^ ^^^ Q''^'^ CJ^*" ::it:2 nm^'n •'s 40 

n3''T DT iDD ht: dt nT:i niit n''nn ""^ 42 

n''Di mnoTi ni? iin^"'i h-idt :nT ::'iTn •'5 43 

(a^PiTiDmn ]''''j?» pnnTi «mt n-'ana ip-r::'' □•'D^n 
fn:ib nm-iD '»t» n''ts'a:i naia? •'Id pna''n n^i. . t]''iDn ■'d 44 

(ivpinTin 

□"•Di:: n^^i^D n^a^ (i»PD''Dn ]n^n •'d^ w nxno? 

Othv^'^s «in nnon ns'»^fp (Tt^pn^s:: pip piDn -"D 4( 
nnxi T^ir^b nnxD ^j-'isn^ (n^nn^t'iB man^ in^n i<b W 

n'^niivts ^<''n ^bon i^b n''niNDii2:i mon •'d 47 

(B^pL.TrnnliN 'np::n n-'hp]:!^ .Tmn-'V i^sm dk n'l^y 



•npnan "^'s =" 



25 



t T'lS' 



CDp B'mDl "Tins 

D'»TDn }^s3m Ton 
n"»'TVi^ 'Tiv^i p''n'ii 

^\'^p2 nn3T ''33"''u Bnpi D^a'?« 



n'»iDx:i □"'pii '»p3 

D''i:i^TiD?l ? 

n'»'»n pirn pan 



23 
24 

25 
26 



^9'?«3 riyj DnnX rO«^ "I'^IK 27VIIU 

B'np 
3*3 lyipiD "rnp-a trnpoi 28 



.(n's pns n^-i n-K'xna) n'snoi O'ln b'tn jib^o • 



■•"•a' nit no 24 

'tail (n3pn:tflp in n"''»no '« n^wi^ 

I'jQst (tiapins mpD Dn-iia^ 'n n«n^ « • 

'rati NB'rn x^ 'n mnN*?"! 

>'Eiii inn:} 1^ D13T 'N D^DT^ >2 

'KJ11 "litan ins nn '« n'^BlD^ '^ 

'fill C^pi^ Dnm^D '« Dn^n^V 

'"lati niXD riD xin v^ yns 'n ^3^ '4 

'ta"''' n"? Natfi''n^ 1^ nmn 'k n*?^ '5 

(x'^p'ta'''' K^ TiDv:: ^p Nin 'n i^d^ 

'D« N^ 5"iia nsD :niD xin 'n in^DyV '7 

'ts"''' N^ mnv^ 1^ '':'»e^ '« T»p2'? 

'la"'"' N^ (I'^PTina TTJDn j^'K 'k pniJ^ '8 

'tail «^ li^^n'' 1:1 '« ^ripb 

'Qti N^ nsa nnt-j ^tiD 'k V"'*'^ '^ 

*'ia"''' N^ nmnia N^m nxDita ^D p''SD yD^ty^ 



20 



nt^s^ pi^i tat^ty Qtaiori -|aim C]''pn 21 viii 
n^smp iia^ipi ::np a-i^n nxm m 

D-inipa miST TpD a^vii^i nsiiJi ps:2 22 

:'3 i^p nyiu '"5? ' 

.''n'7'iDD intj-x"? KDtiD irNi mtya incys'? 
NDO' n'7 iqnVt r3K'7g : 'i tT'yD '2 Nnc'is ii»N xnaon bv nou nt dj « 

."m^'D no'? xin «di3d 

."DSDn 



27 T TTEy 

(apD2«:f n^i'rvna w^b^r^b Dii^^ n:i::y 12 
D:ixn^T niV2^^b n^^n u^y^^'i pip m^^n 

n'ryx o-'n^a m'^iy oi ^n^Tyai o^B'aan -ip33 ipnn idt D^nn ddjsi'? 13 

miop Dy n^ 
anyiB' nxi nij'y rxn^ psi '3i -"nbD Dmny ny ipi ntryK d^^k h 

♦Dy^j^n yaB'^ 

(«0PT!nD nDW l^iriT |T13D 

(30PD<.t:^ty i5«.-ipii QtQ'.^ty i:j-ip^^ 19 

"[tynp DV :i^ ^V iir-npi nm n"" 20 

DO 

nnTian onTn'riy *'n'?''sn n'33 DTinoan ^B>ip in '7K DTnN''3m 21 

min3 r-iytj' ixn 'ii ^o^oyn 73? xip^ n'?sn n^3 ^n^a -a ^natD ^y 22 

rnnsn 



.(u*-' ,3'3 xnp'i) "D'tyai D'-SB'sa ^p^ag :nm airan nrb » 

.0'- .n'Dp Dty * 
.n' :->-ip • 



BuRKiTT Facsimile III 



[S'^'T|T "it2;Kn 'nnn'^i nnD*^ niznp] 



lip-iDD TS''3 nts^K tr'»K np** 



tnp TDS ^5? Din'' •mxns 
•jKitr ^32 ^3 ^) 1-33 bw nn»« ^» ^2^ idn'? nts^D •?« ^'"' im^i 5 

•ry I'jy- t« 'r^'^si rf?y pns "nsr pann w '3i ^n'riy^ ^"^"r unp" 7 

JJ-IT 'iT »DnD 1^n3TD 

\'?''3r V3^3D "js DS^T^K ""•^^ ^D'?tri mi 'Ji m"rt» mub idd^ in^y^ 8 

26 



29 t T'TB' 

Dbiy*? Xi *?« 38 



in'^y nnw -[•>« n^^'^i< [«] 39 

nnrmD^i cnm'':^ [3] 4o 

n:2ni ••'•ty:} •':i-n2n ^3^ [n] 4i 

(23pn^iV "^ssn 3^ '^^^n^'^n bv [T] ^2 

npi::'' '•'•ti^ ntj^:n^ ^ts's [D] 43 



"''J'' TunD 28 

iiDE' 1312 1*? mn n'^nna 23 

DID 13 ]^N ntJ'K p"ip nman (:DpmD n^ r>< "iti'x ns^n dixd 24 iVa 

D^jriDT D''D^nn mj3"iip 
p p"ip3i rjHD p nsTDD ^3 D^o'^ityD ih^ai D^D^'rtJ' I'r^K d^d^'tb' 25 

[rD^QD] p D^anD rnnpD 
nnB'"' D^Dn*? d^d^dd hud p "i'tds in^a p inxs inDr« p crxD 26 

tS^np"? n^trnp -lints'? omnD -iina"? 27 

(TOPDJD"''' x^ nriDj nn^ ita[n] 29 

D3X'''' nts^N H^-'ND p'np 
(TDPDp:: mxn^ I**** dv:> no . . . . [:] 30 

Dn:i3D N^ ^ipn Dmn''D m. . . . [i] 3i 

(BopDii^fn^ n'lnn □« [n] 32 

Di«>c o'l-iD ]t2':i^"'"i niixnD niiifn nt^v'''* 

pii-i^ n''nm''[nD««3'i] 33 

(jpD''^V» ]''« n''Di: [V] . . . • [t] 34 

(«3PD''^n» pN nnD n^v^ ikd!?*! 

nriD "•D'^iai •'i^j [n] 35 

^i3''np''TK 

'J"'^''K» :3"'npD [t3] 36 

nxn 

••mriti'N^i n 37 



/n /p D'^'mn » 



31 



n n^iB' 






npsjnn-'D i 




12 


[np] 

npsHTn^n 


IDl 


13 




. ..Dnsit^i 


14 




b'ipy\ 


15 






16 



n Ti5y 

Ms. E. N. Adler, 287s FoL. 4A. 

li-imnx npiifi i3''::iDm 3 

man ii''^^ ^''ps 
[myo] n-ion nnsnn nnm 

npixnl [■]''^D]Dn bni ^ 

npitfi ion nnti' 1 ["1kd]d p3D 8 

[npi^in] pvini tDSti^nn na:!^! 



[np] I now 

[np] oi^nsitr'n 



II 



■noy j'jn'? 3*2 '^y: n"T ^b' tiDio"? orD nihe' j-'SDi Nnyatr '7B' n^T Kin ^ 

30 .1 myn 41 



33 "rn^n nac'? nanp 

n'»5fn np snnvts'n tains n^**? 'n-'^D p''^3:j ,'«inti^ "tid:i ^d 
nsD"? 01 "131 ^onso n«3 "nan "73 nan ^'^t n*?^*?;! ^snn ^n^i n'oa 

sT-a «■? i^DK n^D^t nay^i ny 
'"ipw D'''?Si mpN*i "ipims «):iij:i n-i^ ^33 dtid 



.rasa n'pi idnd 

nou .1133 nw on^ra n'apn n':n i^b i3 m'?3 n n^JD uj^ki ""jan n« nsoo 

. nnsno ir'733 ; I'^s 
tl-'yo .n"?""?;! "sna "hm npd'd 'n3T Nnp'DD '"y] n'^-Vn ystsxa : x'-a-'D ^ 

, [.I'a c|T •iy3i3 .NQinjm /i 
. n'a .a"" nia*^ * 

a^mai .d-'Dbti -lyen p'nna nnon n^«n n-pioan "ra .'3 .n""? arx « 

.in'^'NT pT Ksa: ]nnKn jdi ,"3tJ'n picsn ion 
D'Diann "^aa .irjun ...i^r'rnn riJJDi ;:''^a -.uatynn tiiiDi iN'-'a nau ^ 
n:j Nin nr "yaN 'lai ir:D "7331 ''i333icr) nmaxa^ :''y^a-i rnn it no-rina Ksaa 
"3 lyE?"? B'M . onnn nr'rc'a pn tynntrn nb rniDTin 'yaaty •'xr '?»' inii"'B> 
HT "75; '"y .i-'rp i^ rmo^nn^ nm'.B'n'? "-d Tai rnn iD"'Din n-'jnnNn cp'-nyan 

. 50 myn Ni3a3 

. nnsD n : p'ln^s « 

.ippma : E"'nyc' naij ' 

.(:"'? ,3" maty) n^na i:^a na« -"a aTi3n3 :k''"'3^d "» 

IIeHto njDj Vsi ,p3j irx nr "73] n^an n3D"'i pts^a innsj : p^nn^a " 

. ['a ,'n n^tt'XTs .ann mryo naon 
p'na irK nr n:] ('n ,'n 7^:^) ma"? icsj Nnp-'i ri'^yn-'i ]iB''?a : p'-\n'Si " 

. ['3 .k": iTyB'"' .is'ry T'ja cmsa Nipo Kim 
,['3 ,a'' n-yET' ,n-isa nn npaji : b's} nnn npaai iib^d : p'nn^s 1* 

.nipn ir:yi 
l^n^ '"Vi amaa rn dk wd ntyx "yaa vn» nniK ta b'n : p'^nn-'Q " 

. [ 7 myn 37 may 
. nan m^i : p'nni a*m now » 



["^Ti:n nintr'^ n^np] 

n*'mi'':3 b^^r2r]b "inn DTi^n V^s 1^3 

1*SB^ I'un'? — lain '?n3n rac''? -isr onjsB'Nn b-ati db'-ijb' ntn Dran ^ 
13 TKB' -JBD nn .HDD '7t:' pti-NT nr"? pig — ,(23 'oy n-'y^aty hjb' T'jon '■«y) 
ntOB "JiNg :'?^nnD ;iD:iy noan ano pi noan mip b& uoto no^-Ln me' 
mjn nV^bn msna '?ni::'"' nx-'s-o r^nxi nmaa nooo n'^nno lanoi ■□"nam 
n^DD Kin ,n':'y mo qor '-ib b-iiin r\2^ lirs p n"?! .■n'7'''?n "sna •'H'^i, : nra 
: Bra r)iD3'?i 'riac ]na nmp "iDyti''?^ : nn-ax pa nana "aa'rtt* ]irt<nn ersn 
"jd"? "pani rein np-'nm O'^'ra ny^iino noD nn'rna isno Nini "ninnn \n'?N, 
"rnan naE^ nxtn nanpn nx "nnn"' nsT "jaa inana I'^-ty pns •■a :iki .'nDsn 
"ry mcy^ na . o'-DDnin Dnnnan '?aa naa Dtrn:! nyn ra na Vapnj naar "^dd 
"man nt^N .pnx-m n^jan'? o'^n'-a b^ ""2 T\^b^2 TicDntyn nanan xnoun 
D"'DDn3 onsD nyaiN K^b rn myi .': /a /n '^oa nmx Tia^si .Niaaa on^'^y 
n'ty riJB'a naianpa d'tb'ji "waraoa n''n inoann rcc'siB' tJaa'K inno : n'n 
^Txi^Tb n", Tiiv T'n trip mnn '^s ay -inna .(an) ■"O-'araD nnno in^n^np "':ki 
riDr nnx p pHs-- '-\b '^xnE'"' nmay nno d:i t'^yn n^t D^at^n lyty ,(o'je') 
mNHDun ""liB' na^ra .■d-'dj an tNa arsn n Ksajc' (1868 D'"'n'?ynyi) an 
ntybc'a n^Ksajn o-'CfiTsn ]ai ,'n -"03 Ksajty jc'n trn^sn "nnyna ns "nojan 
na'ra ,'jk TisDinE' nai , tnn lan ana Ksa:ty na p-\ "noaan a^DDnjn ansan 

. yana "xsn "JK'a "noian ,nmpan "jrs 
('3 ,a"a n-'B'Nia) •'2i« rr'E'Nm •■na laa ,nmaa nr .(n''''3"'D) 'n ■'o '-d 2 
]a "iiaam )ik maa n•^pi axn p niaan^ iiaam .p-'na ir« ntn K'n-'Dn a"?!!*] 
l^rf? '^yi .npna axn ja im asn ja tn ,nmaan •'a naiani .laa -ina Nin axn 

[.nB'N'? -iiaa "rai cyx"? niaa b2 :'n ms iVb 
^«ptn'' .anmna nipnai : "j's] amaina npna laa y))i ]wb .N^^a-a » 

nou .('a ,j*a VKptn") anB'a aman nca a'-nana ansa i^-'n : x^-a^a * 

/Vwa*? : K'-ia 
laT pB''?a [nyaan "r^sj nanan laa : (p'^nn'-s) ^^p mnn nnna '"b * 

.('n .T^a a"''7nn) irnnn cay 
.Tiiaaa : n^p nau • 
paani ,-'? KTn: «^il .anserai '?«nB^ pa nana nn-'nty tN'-a-'B' 
lo"? nmaa I'-a nana jt'BT? : (a'an-'a) •'O-'iraa aian nnna '•■bi p^nn'^a [wn 
anmaa T'B laini uiin ansa -isb' anniaaa ansa n3a'?^''n mohv laa an'-ax 
"sna ^n"! Kpo-^B .Nana ain Hnp-'OB ; n'-" fj-'ya ,«3 ,-iyaia ,Nam:n '"y] aaxy 

. [.n*b qn .n^^'^n 
32 .IT'ST ma m la'am p'nn HDU' 



35 "jnan natr'? nnnp 

mDti^ b^h H)n maty v^^'"' 
"mDirs Yp «nK nDii:' ^dn 

Dr k"? ^••^'? ynr sin nnx nr n^m 'ji ^"nb'b D31 *ip3 xnx idib' 

''Vi2 *?« ['?«i5i'^ rn'rnn aa^r] trnp nnXT iv. 

iDy pn .riNSin ddin "arn Dijyai ,nxr '?^'? ""^nn idj? v^^b 
nE53 n -it^N n"?^"? ."n"?^"? i? sin cr "i*? ^d .isn'?'''?^ D^oyi "ora 

. nmaa msDa •idi'73 : k''-'3^d ^ 
. na-'nn npnoj N^'aai ,Dn^^D : s^^d nm: .dhns : n^oiDnn non * 
tn-'BrnD nB''7B'3 rnxnoii "u&'a xsaac' 'r^tn -laNO "ry nou p-'sn nan » 
T'D '?KiDE' annDT ,tiN nna ynj pidd 'i '^d s^d nan na-'K .n'y D'''?nn trnno 
lE^yty t"?"?! .riana nnn« mx-JB' i'td: "3 tiN n''^33 B'nsDn ?dt nt*?! .n'si 
HE'D ,[pnri nm3K pi nsu n"? c^mos] nuN ': nunp 'j .bi^-^^^b rn nuip 
Vkik'-'D jn'7153 nyc'in m3'?D hnse'si ,m3N3 c-idd na-y ["731 : '?''s] 'i3i pnNi 
DTTnn"? n''3pn Tnyi ['t ,'t 'rN-'in .n"? -icy r^ipi : "7"^*] nrn nxi S'nsn u^ni 
.(K"^ .n^y D-'bnn) pns nuip nioann yn:K D^yci ^Jip "73 3ti3t bn')^"'? 
. Dnu'3i [D^rny b''-i] op-ns :n''"'3"'d /r .n"? ^'yt^•■' * 
.(s"^ ,n''3 moB') 3m nt id3 in3 m : n''''3^s 's 
. cony nn-'jni Dts^iyDn nnso : p^nm s^dtd ; nny r'-"? : n^'s^d « 

.-iDK" :3'''3 nmj ^ 
. [ni^an ^--l?^ yp Knt< "3 nii3ni ; 'n /s c'^nn ,n'?''?3 miacNi iib-'td] » 

. x''" ,s''3 n^yB'-' 9 

. 3^0131 J''"'33 non . 3'''' ,N''3 Dty " 

. {^sitya x^-ss mn3n noij /t .n''" nn3t " 
. B'''nyB'3i p''nn3 onon cpiosn "73 .'■' yop n^bnr\ " 
*V^bt r\yr\n bi< n3nnji tmp nnsi la "n: "yxa nnTn ms: k''''33 " 
: nya iiy '?"'nnai 'nj '?Ny3 B'np nnxi n^oai iVkh nu^nn ^nty 1*723: 3''Dn3i 

."yu?'"? Ni ■?«, 

. nrn orn : :'"'3 nmj " 

.('n ,«*£3 D"'^nn) ^::n nvb nosa isib' Enn3 lypn 3"'n3n : n'''3-'d " 

,('3 .I"*? 3T'N) annn n^ay nibvb rfy-'bn t]iii^T] bn 3\-i3n :i<''-'Ts^^ 

. r]b'b2 c^ay n n''3pnE' nnais 3rN "'T'3n rnB' 
rj'-s ;n'?''^ n"? 021 ti'^i ;ny'?n n"? riNi iN^o HDU .t'ts .n^y D-'^rnn " 

. Dvn i? "3 : D-'DiDnn nm: . n"?^"? n"? n^i 



"""J"' Tt»nD 34 

^r\Q^ riLti; C]i:i:i nisi 'nnty inTD:i^ i^ ""Dip 

n^-'^n iw^iii iDp jinnn nbb^n 'ana nspn 

'jt '131 e^nm on^jo "tdi rnsy "rni xin n"?^"? nj?i3 DpM nins;: 
»\2ip2 onsD nn npDJi ':i 'i3i 'nonn nyi q-ind Dn^D nias nsntr 
nx •"'■• :i3:i '21 'iii »Ty i'?di ne^p □•'^nx T3 d^xd •'m^Di ':i 'i3i 
D^pnyn niD'?3 ^2331 lona ':i 'iji ^"^"^ ny 121^1 kidii sqi:^ nnso 

'131 "nxiK' li'DK n^s 

nyijE^'' D^ia n-imi , "nme^^ nx ^•'sn jHSia^ai nwty "« 
"D"n:;D Kts'D^ "nan s^tt'D 



mD«i man nnna lia «npjty ^Nnr* :p*in-Q . nnno : '21 n'o nm: * 

.l"? 'Dip 
.K1S1 inna i^a"?! :)i3j [ns mas'? : Vs] nmaab' ]iipb nDNia : t<*'o''3 ^ 

. ['r niH ivb I'pnb "y] 
(3"' .T"" rfyB'") tiNB''' nn'33 d-d jmB'a j^iab a«i .rvon ]wb : p'ln^s ' 
]wia «in o ]i33m .p^HD irx nr] iSna^ty nao nn\T nxrn n^onn "3 -los: 
. [n^ob «''3Di!y ,': ,"? ar« .hkib'di hkib^ E'dn piaan 
pVi n-ariD nnr xim .C^"" /^ n-'ytr) hdob' nxBTi pB'^D :p"nn''a * 
Kinc "im"? 113a inrB' b":] ('n /n iflDN) n3'?Dn '?n'7nnm iib''?o n'rnVm noK 

. [a'b .n^'a h'^dt .jiKty n3 \^tybQ 

. 03 • 2''''3 nou ^ 

.B'aiB'D ainan nou 'i\ ^"^22 ."? ;3'' moB' « 

.'31 3^-33 ion .'n .n'bp D-'bnn » 

.'31 a'-'aa ion .': .ta-^ n^yty* » 

. 3*3 ,0"" n'yty' >» 
piD3 pn i«sD3 3'Dn3i .B'Tiyttn p'^na nnon n-'piDQn ^3 .'3 /^ 3rK " 

/ni '« 

.82 myn ni3D3 '"y i^^yi ei*"?K oy n'^n nin '«3''t8' no n^y " 

.ma*? yaK'"' : a-^nytyi p'nn non .dhn"? n3"'nn npno: x'^aa " 

.pna n^nnn TiRB'a oan-'ja ae'^'? Tnye' nnx ir-n : N'^a-a " 

.Dtnto w"? nB7 p nnsDa d'ds \ib rr'B'ysy loa im^a : x^p-s " 



37 bt'MT] nac'? nanp 

n:n '?2^ nsi' n:n pn:5i n'^n^ 
Kisn "imsn i:n^T pji:! ns •'-nsn^ 

"msD v^^ nnt^v IP^k D^tD 

^3 bv Dinm liTsn '-[trip vnn 

»°'Di ty-ipin n'?iy'n p$;in o'riy'? «: •?« 
V 

"n'r^'rn ^i^nn "'n^i pni vi 



.2 myn 32 moy ^^-y"? '^y » 

. mDiK"? Tin mo nr : p^nTs * 
. [DB' ,«np''D3 '•'y] 'rxnB'^'7 cnmn mo : p^in^s ^ 
."yB'rig rfron ion 'ai k'^'Sd « 
wnp^Dsa imB' id3 ,Q''pVk ya^ts n2 ma'^a •'o-'Dana .ddm : p^nn'D ^ 
nnyn '^y D^trnn nxB'ai ,k3 XD^n^na 3^3 k^^dji .nV^'^n '^sna \ti : Npo's] 
ypin 13 nnxi .onn "in n-myyo nmo nVnns T'y bv note's i'?d [nyam e-'KOT 
ij"n ,m3D yB'n nnry lyssx nn'^a "D'oanaB' nsdj /i3i cymasn nn on'-Vy 
yETi nnsry "it" n3iB'n inr n3D n^hb' nnns n3D3 bna ,n''N3 E^^ny i^sn 
"rnj .nnDE'o ni33 .ids'? 1133 ,v3n'? 1133 ^m33 n3D "j^a 'o ,nm33 ni3D 
,Dnso3 Kim mnK nxo inn .n»*x "yaa nn3 .■'3E'n m33 .nnsBTi -1133 ji"'3n 

.'?":3 . mnx pN3 Kim onso 1133 
('i .I'a niDE') 3^iK ryin 'nnrD^noxaB' id3 rim □•'3 ny^3on ; p^nn'S ^ 
."ysn 1DD1TI :3""'3 nty ynm '73n iiaoni : 3'''3 nry ynri : n'o hdu ' 

.'imD'7B'3 ntn ersn nsdj D'msn3 •" 

isp '""B KisDi n5':r3D oiansi «*"'33 . n-iir d-b^tb zr nrn orsn "ry " 
ttiTB r'ry 2n3 ^k-ib^"" rm3y mo '7y3i .inx nnr Kin tyn-'an p'nn innDsi 



•«^2'' nuno 36 

33"in n'?sm *m:{m »m^n .'omi^ yoBTi nnija yot^'D .i^nnxa 
''orT'^nn ^v is« nnty niS'N 



.(n*" /K D'^oaiB') monn "ryo msm tea ,n'?ia3 on'jyns'? mn ip^nn-'S » 
(3"'" .a^D n-'yty") najn"" ra-'iN bv nns'- :in ^t id3 .noin jib''? : k'o-'B * 
«■?] m-isi ipysM nwnn ,npys ]w'? : p^nn-'s . nnxa nopa -ny^c' n-iuu d'?13 
.[I'rsi IN imsi IN .ipyt) k"?}* nra nunn 'tinsd 
njijyo """33 '?3N n^Dienn noo "a*? Kin ht tnn nm: .sipm ]wb : K'-'S^a "^ 
/m Dy "^y nnm msn tipnm ypnn 33nm n'rsn wsni nDsn : ^"^2 nou . Nin 
rj-'-'a nou /m ny "ry nosni msm msm aanni nVsn ^ipnrn ypnn :3*''3 nou 
.'131 ny "ry nosni msn ^ipnni ypnn 33nm n'?sn n:sni msn 
"7*^ o p3D '73 i^N "rsN ."E'npi 01101 «iu^ NiH nnipOH b^ nou « 

. nosy •'3a3 moiy n'70 n-'hi ."mip^ 
.('T ,0""' n^yB'") onso na ''m3Di ]ib''70 .maon rp^nn^a ^ 

. Da"? : D-Disnn nou ^ 

.■pN-itr "33 n'?ty ab: la"? ny-ia nti-pnti' "ry : N^^a^a ' 

. CB^Jua n'jB'Dn -ib^n nn^K^y nn\n : 3''''3 ; •'B'Jii'? : ^"^3 nou ^^ 

.nnro: mB'y3 noin^c' Dm3X •':3 rp^nn-'a " 

. nyi3 : 3"^ nou ^^ 

.(n's /■• Tcvur) Dn'''73n "ry "ax pioa n^^ Kim Dm3yin ip^ima " 

'•-y] niDn3'7 rn n^innB'oi non3 nyi onso 0^1133 n-'snty : N''''3''a " 

. [B''3 ,3""' niDE' ]r\iv Dinni ,n3 'a NnV30 ; n'?-''?n •'sn3 "hm xpo^a Nnp'oa 

bv i-tt33n\nE' Dr3^ -.rt'-^bn "'sn3 'mi '"a Nnp"'Da3 noNB' no'? ton] " 

mr:i npntrai npTi mn orn mix .in'-s nin3 i'?b' r^'pw is n-'n no ono nnx 

, [n3p orn ims i'7N3 r'^y hb'p nn-ni 
. nnae^D rNi"? : coiann nou " 



39 !?n3n nar"? nanp 

n^"»^ D51 np:i «n« ne^i -ioiis'd m^ 
'n^'»i?n ^^ C)K DIM ^^ •'3 VTin m 

»pm VII 

VIII 

rf?'''?! imK yn"' Dr^ ori .or Tish ^am n^'-'? n'JS^ t'« '^ viii. 

onpD ,8-ioy «"iti' «-nnjT ,-idd i^trn^ n*? iti^m ,vnv nyn n'?^'?'? 
D^2"iy^ ,naiii nnnsi "ip2T iniri ,innJiON ijjtr'' m'?^'?T ,n"iDn n-'r 
niniN n^ri T'n'ts •'dj n^DT^ i^yj-n ]dti pyi "ny 'rs^ .n"?^*?! eity^-j 



.tiDi" p un-'tj'D ins N2'' iijoi Ji3 -d .n'-n' 
; i"? Dii ...'73'? ymn m : 3'''3 zn'?-''? i"? eixi ...ymn dt : n'o nma * 
nriKi n'?-'7i orn ^'?B' ub)^ ymn """bti nnx : p'^nn-'S , eini ...ynin m : j''-3 
nnNiy '?3'7 jnr tx [t\"h b^s] no p inop: mpjnB'3 ij^m "rsn it31 V33 *7tyiD 

.nnx loc'i nnx 
niK imN3 "^'T or 11x3 no-tt' nai , n'r"'? na'cn*? nonty m'73 : p^nrfs ^ 
i-Nn j3 K3'7 TTiy"? D'pnsb nj3 s'nNi 'k or pn n''B'«n3 'd*' nB'B'3 i^kd nTity 

/m rB'3y 
3"-33i ,n'"mn» m Tns "no nt tare ins «i3"'n k3 ^nv^y\ x^-as * 
.ntynpn inx «in mn inDn b^ loipo a'^as d'tin .nt mD*? mtn 3*3 nsdj 
.tlDiD3 aba nnnca k3 n"? t^np nmn -innDsi 

.1^1 pai : BOityon nown nsdj 3''d dist n3'?a mDipon '?33 « 

.T^Sib rx 1331 : '31 N'"'33 ' 

. 3^3 ,'3 "TN-jn '^y 8 

. rnxn "pisb nnsn i«Kn CDB'n nnnrs riE'iy nDxty nonn : p^nrr-D » 

. [Tinn"? 'r'^sE' "r^j] nan'jnD inpsn pnnn"? :p''nn''S '" 

:3*"'3 ;ny '?33i T^b'b ^ityji uv 3-iyi nnnsi ■ip3i naai nntri :n''"'3 nm: " 

.•ip3i n3:i nnen 
Dnp3 nyn nin"' r^'bi : '?''ti moa naiB^D nrn iDNon '?3 now j'"'33 ^ 
np3i inB'i nay •ntJ' t«iin:i idd tbtt n"? lE^im nnaioN ujty ni*?"'?! i-'non nT 
. ym ]DTi n'y ''SI n"?"^ tityji nonyi n::i onnsi 



n^"'^n m^nn nn: i^a nn 

n^''^ 13 :nni trnp '•^^n nsni^D 

n^*"^ '-rnnp ims riTints' m^D v^s'ii 



'iN ]"«« mN "^a T3 ""isa b'X-iB''' mny 'db' "jsdi . mp nsp ibids p-ii pmo 
K-'SN nsp '?NnB'"' miaj? 'pysB' niDipoa p"ii .man nss 'nsa'? "osy'r nam nxn 

. t:*np mnn "jya nan 

i«SD n'tc .DnsDN "Kpi >n ntyiy ids ,pdd jie''? D-'triaa c"' : p'nn-'D ^ 

.(I""? .a"-' maty) nnso n^ i'7sri aTiana ,D3ioa 'tnib''' inp"? o ,n:iaD 
. miBi oaty oty "ry .'rn'r •'ua no'^a n^tmsa ty-i : p"nn^Q * 
. n"?^"? marrna nma : a'^-'a nma ^ 
«-iip ''bn nan Nf a (k"" ,«"a n-'ye'"') ina a^nac' ans irTi : p''-ir\''B * 
-iBK ,N-iip •''7N •'"tn '^Di n'?-'? d:i -ipa njin -laity ibn n'r-^'ja na -laity Tyt^a 
ia N-in na 'tnib'"' naity Tyt:' ma'ra '^'lya N^a:n in ns'ran smp "bx n^apn 
npa mE'y'?! nntn"? "izb &' 'lai Nns .n'^apn .nair -lax rxtn na^trnn lai nb-'bn 
nniM ^•'ara jvitq "naie^'?^ n'^a'^n naB-i .rpn ny'p itfy"? ipina n"?^"? aai aa"? 
. n'p^'ra na "lair : k^d", . n'7^'?a na naity i«'7an «iipB' nxnpn 



nvi» i'T'^ip^ "i^tj'o •'Ti: "IBID nn"? 

*''tS'iV ns'inn ^ddid^ "iDp '^sn'' nsDn d« 

''D''Dn ""^^ta nMn^ ^ixj 

[□■•nan n^-Q 'i3i -in]n 
li^in*' iDDH 'tde'k i:x2n x'pd -non -ins 

"IV "i:t lin 



•"Ta d-jd"? n-Ti nrn "■"an .2708, 1 » ''d 3*n *'7"'iNpi nyu-'U no-'jsna iddj j3 ^ 
nDs"? 't^ r"?!? DDn Nim .n"" 'y a^n n^'ro-n"' "1:33 nrn nran o^ann laaai nya^nanyn 'n 
^r^stt* ,586 XII n^"7:3Nn n^nsi'rp^sjyna nsna 'n pn^sa nt "?y Tyn nasi ."^"i'' 'in ne'iat'? 
.'JN^'D ,VJis '^y) riDiD n'^sn'? noiJE' era ioi'?d ,Nr)y3B^ :iti3 "jr db' Nim "ncia-ng 
^B* 't"? U3^K ntn Oram xnyaB' nman n"! Kin t^'Tn mx 3"«i ,('3 'yn ,69 'oy ynysa 
. nrnxa pTiyo n^D ns'io-n n'^on naou pan ""rai .noa 'tb' noia n'?an'7 k'^n noa 
,piDa3 '?'nnD rnn "pa .it iina a^Nm o'TB'n tb' "pioa ""ay nou nrn aran * 

. pioan nan nnx jt'SI IT'S "pa 'jb' iiE'Knn mna naton a^xn nrmxi 

."Dya "lari" : n'?B'n"' ni^a ' 

."B'ly "B^'B'n .DB' * 

nti ,'1 ,'j B'^nB' ny I'a ,'k B*"nB'a laub injia "a nr "ry n^ya nya^naiyn 'n * 
;a n'7iy nxT "a : 'n /n B-'na* ny r^a .'k b'^hb' la "r'si ,n''Nan n'pioan ?a naian mya 

.'m npanna lanan 
41 



•'^j"' "inno 40 

^m«-in snB'is?! m«'?D n^'tddt n\vw' e^nnon n'n^«'?si ^'-naioi 
^Dn ^3 ,i»n"' «■? yn):^) n^:^ «i^k lari cny njim d'^d"' -ididh 



/neiei mmxi yvhQ ■'D3 ta'o rnsio :k*''3 now ^ 

. m«113 «l"'^nDt : '31 '3 ,K*''3 HDU > 

.'tJi rnp nnx omno ont ^1^B nr« : s'o nou » 



Vlllb 

VIIIc 

IX 



bv n^om /Ti-D^i anoy n^3D ^3 .^njiuna i<b loai ^onnsD m lyn 
^3y nc'yDa iKun .^^nc^nprij 3«ti nnxa ^d /msy v^^ti bv^ *n' b); 
«ipD3 ^D ^niDD DJijnsi n^c^E^n ibd ,6^n^«-i m"? ntDon ^d ^nxtj'j DnKtsn"?! 
nnx nyi .Tioni ytyiriM d'?d3 ^3 ^nn'?D DJiy^i n« ^213 no /^niyirj 
!?Dr «■? 11333 ^n^NiJi .Ti^iyj k"?! ^n«np ^j:m /nxsD ^«'? D31 ^npn 
Diya"?! /nn'r^u' ^:d 'jyDi "Tisj^: ^rhm\ /nsty ^n^3i •ri^'pya nnai y^e^in"? 
nn3i /n3ty n^oms ^m3T s^msr: nnn:3 nyi .^n^i'? nnt'pii ,^nn'?itt' "rss"? 
cmKi ,^n3irin Dm"?:) ^n^'?^3 ^n^i /n"'«-ii 113331 ^nni D^ami n^iiti'xi 
niD3 /ms'Bnj ntsDoi n'7yDDi .^niyipn: D"'E'np3i /nyotyn ^31di ^nya'in 

3"3 ll'lip ■''?« 

vnnKB' •'JQD KinB' ('o 'oy a^n n-'rB'n' "tjj) i'?b' kuds '?''ion "lana n"?! ('3 h-dt) 
pi'jD v'^y 1DDJB' noi .''loy oy """''? a"" "3 .ion> nx nnn lync^ '7'nnon Bra •'''33 n:!dj 
ntynp n'ryn i'ji J33i ^-nriDn inK io^do pi'^'o r js"? anajty nuya .'r'^iDn "nans «in ,in» 
p«3i TBD3 ,mnB3 ymw njn^ : idvdi ."ntnn nn3 yiOB' .nc"-'?'? D^Din: yDtyn^ '•ai 

.'131 ijytpji ^mp'- 

. D"''?nn3 I'p mDTo'7 irays non nrn arsn ' 

. [nyo^nttiyn myn] onoy p nti'D m3T3 d'pni loiVa ' 

. D- "^y nam "r's m "d"?! 't yp n^'^nn '-y * 

re^i3 E)3B'3i ('15 .b'd rrB'Ki3) nnN nn*? '^b'djb' nmn-- Bstyo n^rtv ]wni'z Yi » 

s^y T*"? naiDi n'7B'3 's Nny3D3 ^"02 n'^'nn d-'? ht on'sn (t'a .na^) sxt"? '^ti'DiB' 

. [-iyD"'\n:2nyn -lyn] 
.•^jya iNun «"? dhe' * 
.rnbiib nap "ityx onra ^ 
. [nyo"nt3nyn nyn] p's riK m3r3 133 dj ub-' d& "733 nnni '7yB' win » 



43 



•"•'3'« nnno 42 

TfDvn^ man naty •'OD^ty iidD in'?iy nsr ••d 

TDts^'' «^i ms'' niiDp mnx 'T'D'' k^ .Tini^n d^d 

TDn n^ip nxnn *[m2J] K^n now d« 

[p*"^^ ini-'DK^ TTHDn "01 i^Ti]:i 

nna^^'D 'n"»::'i::n$; [d-id] mts^T' mns ncm ^jk 

"njati'ii ^2:3 ^^inD nn ma 
['1:1 ip^ :2iK3n "Di -jin]a 



n:N3n p^ibth nrniNi .p^nKTi n'-TB'n tk' ""Pids -s 'jy noi: i'?''ni ]«3a tarsn * 
•■a B'^'rnn'? r« p^ntynn ^tr ibidi a^xn ^id nonty htdt . piosn •'lan nnN tnni tnn ^33 
ciD'^on n« D'''?B'n'7 nosy'? nam o^jti-Dn ixn k"? nm D'oys "3 ,^D^ i^-'jd'tb' eran 
pT D'n33 yjo irN a^xn '"oe* ""r b\i^ m3npa (ivb) "yann pbnn Kajn"? nx-i . n'^xn 

.n'r mx ny 
.TDyn"? man noty -la"? "py nmna "jcty .-lai'^a 2 
,Toy^ «•? n"'BBn d'd : "y's ^"^wi .p-riyon myo Kintr pso "73 pNi .oima Nin p * 

. ty« "DC'i n"stin -i:yx nansn dn mas'? I'rsr n"? n^an d'-d 101*73 
Kin "N^n noin dk^ its-'on ^ic'^aty '^''ji .p'^ncnn '"d "jsd TiSDin nxm n'ron * 

.n^an n'^iy ns-'ana' pras nny '7^<■l:^"' nx nsn nis "r^ii 'jKiti'"'? ^ja 
. 01213 nan m3 n'ran , n^d n'a n"'«'r3 '"y * 
.(n""? .t^o niDC ''y) natj'u ps "733 noi'^a ^ 
piDDa E'antyD tnnNn m XT'aai .D-'TB'n Tty b^ isid ny ja-'sn yan mipn n^as ^ 

.iniD'7B'a 'n '?Q''spa 't 
Oy. SIQJ'-D DiKyno t^ana '"33 a'j Nsaj nrn arsn qiD :nBDn myn 
D">B .n^ayn*? IISTl ICES'' : I'rNn nuicn mKnoun issa: db'i '^''i •'kj- 'i"? nyaiy'?^ niya 
«"B> 'a •T'an n^iy*? IS xm nam dk .Tac'^ "rxi ...12'? mnx .n-'a- n*? nTityn D"'31 
ty •'"^ impa nana'' ...linaty D«T ...DDB'IJD ^733 ...n^tJ^VD n^3i3ny ...'21 D^ID 



45 moVntt:'*! 

,'mT''Tnn HDD ^j? in:i: n:inn^i ,n«T b nxn: nnx? 
.mtn^ ""^V DD«"n» ,'mnnn •'^nix •''•n-Dn d^i^i 
,i:}ti'p^ •'"'^''0 nnv :ix^ ,i:2''dd:i |nn ]''T«'' i'?d 



.(^a .no nrx '"y) 
. nnnna aina trn-'sn Va iDt'^a * 
pp ,r-i3^N "raa ■'"en "js'? nan!? nsTina '?''ni ."u-'sna nan*? onm^ "p^sty "y^j » 

.('n /a VN'an) "pnaynn rann^ ]iB''7t3 k-'H "onn^ n'701 ,'n njnDxn TiiDsy "ra 
nnrn nann ^"m .pn"? Ti^x iin-aum (o'a ,n"y n'''?nn) Drff K^y cmNm mann * 

.nac na'rnn t^^n nanpa nom 
. i^'D n'D ]nnn:D '"'V ' 



,''nDnv piDs '?D^ mjNT j-n^nnn di"' mo ]''va pi< 

. niDiti'n mpim mmn ,manv V^« ^^^ ^P^ ''^^'J 
,nn^nD ^tr«"i npy*' ''iix:i mti^nn ,ma''23 nvs« '':i'':in 

.ma« n^b^ ^:2 D''Dn''T ,mmv "n'? Q^'Wi ^i"»i^ "'^^^^^ D''«''p:j 
,''''ni-i:i my •'^''hiddt ,''-nvaT •'ipT ''''^''ti'''» mtrn ^itD*'^ ""nmr 

,''"'n:n ^d^^ ••^itynn ,••''-12101 •'"'iian •'•'Dan 
.•'''n«2i ''•'D^'yi '•''"inn ,''''mniT •'•'d^'^x ''''^n:i 

. D''iy'ns naKDn n''^pT D''m»n jCts^ii D"'ti^i^< m''''n nn^'m "no-'K 

ynn-inD^ t^iyn^ ''^:: '•n^nr ,nnnt< osnD^n '•'n^B^^ •'vn*' 
."nn-'D :i''''n ^y^ ''is:s ns'rn nmsn b^ ,nninn mn □''D^n laiD 
/n-i^ssn d'tid^ :nii^n ,d''''V» ''DIdv^ n'n ni3D 
.BQiDty Km»3 i:2n xnia ,n'>''a'i''D nanp:i nnnn 

.('B ,n'3 n^yB") am nasnon piDsn i^wbn mam"? "y^sty b^i 2 
.('n ,'T arK) "ni w iJiiB'n «•? tic^o .TT'K-itt'a y-t » 

, N*y ,:"" ran'y * 
.nKD aim turn an*? D^'^'in (D^yo "moy) ■jniet' •«3ac? maan "y'T ^ 

.I'BD ,n'B ma« « 
44 



47 msDU nnyn 

iinon ID miDn nncy ns&'r n noin nxmu nioa "d- nnx yjjn u ma dnb' ir^n 

«3n TD K'KT i't'sb" dn '?"^^ .nx'rm N^nn nyo nnn rwyo^o "niibna^ 'a nxij ^"71 (n 

. nxiai an"? 
(3*5? n'O I"'"" '^''2 '"'^^"'^ 'a'7B'n"'aE? T^yn"? mxii .nr nt^N '7B' nana omn"? tdt (o 
D'^Kmax ^pbni ,a'y 'd Dty •''raaai .n nana Dinn"? una n"? D"'«nDNn ^D^ajy nxn: 

.n nana omna 
ennpn 'n -pis ;'? /' O'V" «nE3Din :i"7« n« ci-dik nyaia in^'ry Tyna^ nmpan nab'D 
mns mjn my iwan rins n man"? .T'tsa Ntynn tymo ; N^y .t""? rn'raytr nxsm 
i'?K tins n- '7yi ,0""'— r^a ,'i "^b'D "py moui t^oa r'n nan wnp-'ia irja"? nxsajt? 
,D"'K3 D-'yjin I'r-'aB'aB' niTayn nana la^an b^ inyn bv may"? na^p nn^nn "nty 
to D-DT na-'aB'T nbrj nn n'-Bmaai ma^na 'a i:nKD nasae' mpaa t^♦anB'nB' iB^axi 
Nnaain Na^n"? '^y) n-JB^-'n nrnpanc :>": rvnb -"Oi-n . ;N:a n"? ""n I'^xn mvayn 
nxa ny-isty niT-ayi in^"?y cto n^yjiB' nn^ay liai ny-i^j"? o-yai r^ I'^nan C^'on 
. nyns"? D^yji ra '"^'n^n n"? o-'Bnnn nmpaa "raN p^'ry 
jfnb bri ^2nm maipa nannai .«npan iiti^a npo* laa a^aan iwb^ «im "rrn Vs (x» 
. nanx "^y I'^am "yy icnnB' na 'n ,'a nan v''n''& ViD:nb '"v 

.b''vb '■' 'yn '•'y .n'M a"'' ,'1 "VK^a'? Tan (a- 
; maynn rn bv n trantyn la-'ani .mebnn ]wb2 -maN'ra xaaa Nin "ayai nan, (r 

. t"-" ,'i "bK'a'? jnao nt tnnai 
, o""'! n"" ,'1 ■''rtyaa onawn nnann rx n:iD «in «"■• inn c|1D ny itoa (n- 
. nna"? mpman rimnn msa nana xinty fnn nx "jpVpan yr? piaa (in 
/3 "bsm) oyj "am n^am piaan ""ay ayu nnin"? «np ja-'ani nmn "nan v^'J "laiVa (tb 
*nana Yi<iti^ "a "jy anaiK irmam^ : 'i .r^a nan nanaa nDU*? nooe nn . (t"" 
ampan ay n't! n'aa nmxan annan ay a^aaa "Nrty nt"? a"? d^b''? "ixni ."nmn 
KUdaa n^aa B'anB'n "xrE' nai"? ntyas "n] .nan i<'\p^^\^ xaimna b-'JB''' nnrn 
ennan ^ya"? a^yma vn m'rpn "araty (e 'yn 273 .a n .:) nxnn naa p^s '3 li'^a"? 
. ["^'lan .b'm cman dj axcy laaaty itr"" mpaa canton "'71x1 .nrn 
.B'vonan) ainan lujoa crantyai npB'n ny riN nxna Nin xan nnna ytya ny jsaa (t- 

nysDi n'an^ ns ntyyatr -aty "r^m .n^an laa «in na^sT .na'-n ay sin cinnj nas (n- 

. Q-'yjja B'iyj «in nn 

. nn^'^y c^xa a^yjinu' i'^k ra "i3"n ae^n n« 'j'rpa'? ran KinB' i'"7i (a" 

. t'"! 3"" ,'^ "'^B-a'? ran (a 

DM yn*? aiD ra ynxn ainan ptj6a ins la'am yn"? aia pa B'nan'? ym ntrx ny b''i (sa 

.(i""? .D"'' 'a '?xiati') inay cya" 

.('n .m n'bnr\) "pbn naa 'n naK:ty na ""ay n"apn t<in tpbn (aa 

. cN-'ajn mxtyaa nai'^a (aa 

^KpTH' '-y) nVnai nnn anna wnnji "^xntr "ry naaa n-'B^bty ma'?D K-'nty ir nia'?a (na 
nnann bv now la^an nam ."'B'"''7B' aatr Nin» •'i'? ">» n''«3iaE'nn b^ (»"' ,«'a 
T3 ...TV^-b^ ma'ra m "tyVe' aac' nr ,]v na'ra naaa m"?^ :'3 .a^sa nan n-'trxnaa 
11K3 nnya 'n d: "a n-'yn'? MNm .'"ih b\^ onty "NsiDtyn "-ja m-a r'?Bi: jr ma'ra "a 
nyaayB' T^en*? nrnya '-y) n"'c^'?B' no'?a bv "vrb^ aaB' •'ana "inry^ nr rya ts^s 

•(50 'ay 



'"";) pnj3 D'Vii msiD r^^'J' yiT i^^^ .P^^ '^'"^^ i2"io nxtj-ip hk'k i« jy^w -non (k 
(mxno yansa d-'ndqd r^t:' Q'pni :'3 ^'yo 'a pis 'n nhc'id a"'? a""" nisd XDan"? 
■'jn 3": 1NSD3 nr mo qiDai y^J^xa-^ mtra cy^j msno no'rna t«3 p P'sn b^n 
.(i"d ny J^D ,t3^'7i n""? ,3"- nipm) nyis yj: "^a"? n-'yjun dtii isyan my yaa 
nn-'B'NT i« nmpn idnd qiD N^n ^316^'K^^ miETi dk ^■'bnTih icdk "<« '""an inon -asa (3 
. d':di« "'iB'a ic'sn "'"i3n Bna"? ty"" nt •'d'?i .n^jtyn mw"? i^tt'i irjs'^ti' lONan "rty 
na inn .insna n^nc'j n"? i'?''SX Nin mna msn rin ^33 yaan nca DNty Nin nnxn 
mnan nns DNiy "-Jcm .p"? isn i'?13B' ('n /n o^yja) miD D''a3n ]wb^ «-ipj»y 
nVin irc'D -"y D'yjj nsaiaB' ,y3:n ntrs dn i^^dx mno nNaion mNnae nnx nantr:; 
nay nsty tynsa ('i ,3"^ xip"!) nmnn "jy iB'n''D3 ""^n . {': /n D'^yjj '"y) nNna3 
picsn "jy t«BDDNn nn 'n nsn a": '"y] .p ir« n3'?nn "^sk ,nbo nc'D i« wsnas 

. ['7''ian .NnpM ^y ic'n-'as ntn 
naa xsa: "a'^tyn^ai .i'7« n^:aD ""y maiy ynp ibt"? pn n'hb' ijon nxaia lai'^a (j 
(N^y ':) 'n na'?n k's ma-ia Najn"? hnt .n^yiap n-riy myaB'a3 "n-i'p^ O'cya 

. (K^y n":) n^Q en naioi 
yjin ]B lyas-'B' ny «bb r^'i' naxB* na"? tbi .on^'^y 3nd"' d-ic3 "ib'N3 n^yni-an "t^t (n 
pn'?mKn T3 r«B' .orja ddni tno "3 ir3'' .('itT'yD 'a piD 'a t<n{yis3 .a"" khsd 
('-im 'nn nnn r^Bps) amno npa"? nns nt ^^b^ .nsn" x"? 'n dk cyjai D"'K'?na r'yy 
nnn I'^'in {yiBty n3T "^y] .('n ,n"s D"''7nn) mnm njs ]iB^'?a xmi nmn "^pca "ry 

. ["j^ian .80 'yn "'yjaxn Nua3 '■•y ,v''apn 
.n3iB'n3 wity"" i3 n^ "jy dn diid- -n'' n^n"? 3ibt ma b''^^ .nxa in ni: y'sc' V": (n 
nnx Kin "xa^ nrms "nty m'7y3 D"''?a c^ty :rn •'Jd'?b' cpnpnan b^ jnaty -d"? d3BN] 
k: i3n nnxn mp'jna 'a"? p'^nna NJg iVb' m3nB3 cnaa 'n a^a ibn pi ."nxj^ ny 
onnn "yy iin3 na ."^b^n ('■> .i""? c'ynn) n-'ay maB'na K'-an /iB'n ('a .x"" mac) 
. ['j'^ian .tipn dib''? tiis ik3 fK nt ■'s'71 ('t ,3": n^yiy) 
■^y x^ian nnjn '"yi ,'73-n td3 nxno N-'m «bb j'^tys nrya rn nn« nsia my Vn (t 

. N^a /N D''y:3 
n"'B3n ]wb^ «ip:ty no inn .qun "733 yaan ms"- ONty «in ma'' dn B^iT-aty pan i'-k (t 
na"? x'7 nr -a"? '?aK (a*' .a""' xnp-'i) man nna dni 3in3n ]wbo ('k ,'n n-ya:) mia 
xin nina i-iB'a b:i nx nyisn nnD3 nx nnB' mm "'■i3n r"iniD3 r«i3 IKi'sn ''n3njy 
■7": p"? . m3iy Ypb insaiB ntyia qn nu '?3'? b'^y'? ibnb' laay ■'■i3n pnioty Nb« 
NBD ninon p mian iinn xaan ja mian na'rnn b)} nau la-'an nanty Tyn"? 
m"?! ."iintj jnan iniK Tionsy ins qian '^aa yaan ntra n« lai'^a (k'b ,'n cyai) 
"733 yjjn ntya Dxry m3iy vp"? inxaiB ntria dn t\M b:)'? 'j-'y'? iwan •'n3n d-3ii3b 
natyi: u ma"" d« b^» ;*iinB Kaon p mianc ,m3iy naan hkbid naon ■'B"'3 :ii:n 

46 



49 msDta nnjjn 

.\b nas« p"? tun n^apn -ioi'?3 .i"? "ibs p*?! Nin tun V's (id 
)ib6d «in in^i .ytyin ny in irx aio nub' n'apn lai'ra ,in" «"? ny-a aio "r^s (no 
pa : ntn Bran bv; n:isy«in miB'3 a": noN pi .('3 /i n-'tyxna) mN3 «nn ]it n"? 

."Iiu- n't jn 

D"'DE'n p Tbv imn- po liiB^ iitynn dk •idi'?3 .on to •'jB'ni ion )d pe'Nnn nion" (id 

. ["^'lan .iionn ']:wb ]prf? t"i^ ht ■'D^J . ny-i yb^j ton •«'?»' 
r« nD^«' nJ? toni ,nyns r'^y ton n*? -["nb lan'^D y:D"» o« idi^s .dinj yjD" ^^s (td 
K-'Drf? i-D riK inn ■?« nmis enpn nm rao xsri:' ynn \wb '?y n"?k Dn«3 D''y3:n 
.('3 y^isD .'3 'sin NDinan) lau r« nip'rn'? inB'3 nx 
."irys m3 3B" ynison "idi'73 .nayji 3B'"' "^idVj "^'s (nD 
.'131 mo 'T3nD n^ni .n^a Iib''? i^aan '?''x (dd 
.aiTy *3 IS*? )n» ^"s (: 
. noTM n^B'DJ n3t'? y^i (n: 
ji''n'> D-uy ni3m ntMJ •''?y3 py3 nnn >«nB^ pK iDrt>3 .nDDiB' D"':ik''3 B''n3 ^"s (3: 

.n3 Dl'^B' 

Enpon DipD K'^nB' ^Knty vnK3 noKJ o-paa "rn i'?« "idi'?3 .n-up mpi njoD"? "r's (j: 
n«"'T3n n-CKiD n'spn ^b^ u'ip H\n wi (t'" .ro niDtr) n'spn its; inat?^ ii3ai 
n"'n3En K'7t5' nn3 nV nvr *nyi 0"^ cnaT /tdd) '73'? cmp nN"DJ ^wntr' vinb' 

.(a^D ,1'3 KTP'l) "DtK V'Wm TDNJB' 1D3 

nyjr nx n'''?y nmno rnn dmi nooen h^nb^ .van pKn nK iKoan dk V'-i (na 

. n'^K n''3pn 
T^ nNnpi "rKiE^^ n*?nj irnr VKne^ ri« D'KDDd D^yjjntr K'n ntn iD«Dn njin (na 
n'?iyn "M '?3B' n^n^ : a'oD '3 khdu in: 'ti ni3« '-y . mi^n nany K^na' citro 
i^K3 Dino mi^n i'>:7i /n3 Dm'?n onx ^:2^^ 'd ^*b 'Vcd C'nnD3i /n3 o-'ihin 
D"'N3n3n i'7N n'?nD n-nDD, 3'" t'-b n''?nn tmD3 inx DipD3 tyniao V3k .n-'cnnon 
•'3S •''?y -ibi "b]) mi'yn niyiyn 110x3 iD^ani .'mi'^n dbi3 nn'?yB' ny omisn ubd 
niDJ?B' lino*? nr "tb) . D>p''-nn b& D-Kin D-'Sun "jy mi'rn rfryo nsn^' ^"-^ p'-re"? 
nDKity noD 3": n3iD pi .^Knir ri« ^b' niDB' in "r'n o'emos nruDn nxn 
.*V33 rf?3inD HTitff bn^iT ri« IT "rnn, ^"b 0^31 '«nDD3 
Ipt r3 D-'sy-nBD onKi ipt "jb nnni nixD d-^Q'^q cnx dn nnoBO nnpn p«n b'''\ (u 
.'131 Duprn nx D''na3D d'T^\.. rspiys 03^*3 "bt^ n3">pni# :*3 can .nao '"y .-lyj'? 
Dnn« n-'Dyo "b^ffo BmD3i ^aerr ppa ^SK^na' dib^d ^an 01^3 mpaa ris<n V^n (t: 

>«>^ n^j myn '^y .^3n db* bv 
tarn •iaD3 ktd p^ nnyna tunac^ no *»y minn nrpDD TiDn rfrDn cnoB' "py (n: 

.«Sn 'oy "p^^Ki^J^iw DT?3B' niK'?D'? 

. nni iN3">n nB'K nnua "^'s (a: 
.(3*!? ."n ^K"'3n) ra'B'n «*?3 Nyi« nNn ^31 iie^d (d 
j'> ^-.jioty 'a /^in KDinin "f . djiddi dot nnini pB'n: r«3 on"? ib'n ^31 n^un b"! («d 
^y lE^n-'aa "i"? "tkib^ 'n m •?> n^nB' no '^yi ,*iin''D33i vdqv 't b^ ddt n-'nn^ 

J^''P «Dp K33 "D'TB'ITn 

miD« K-'nB' Dn'?E' mt mi3y »6 ^a« n3nTi dbd3 pi T'nn -iDi'73 .onnt bK «'?i '^''s (3D 

.Bnaoi I'rinB' id3 nN:n3 
oran) Nin onn "3... vt<2 iisnen an-'n'?!* "b-'DB minn n3n'7 idt na c- pao ^'?3 (jd 

.(1'3 .n'3 ,'T 



. Kipn }Di« Nsn : w^y n*s jninjo '-y (na 
"133 nn .n^by i« a iB^TEsty ('in nnn Y"Qp^ 'xn nnn n'-i-'s) -un np:"? insty ■7": (o 
nnipj Tity ""aa ty'' -ry mxT ■'s'^i .rnr'jy d^D3 mpan :'j .n"? D'''?nn "'sy d-'DB''? 
lity'70 CDty'? "lia Kim n:« "j'sty a^a ib^ski .-ijk na^na 'xn"? "ryoo h'ts rys 

,('1 .'D Dioy) mo^ n« "^y imjKi ainan 
a-Tian yin jib''? nsjoD na ...nyae' -asj i"'^apo j^k mna 'n^ N^y i^p imnio a": "y (ta 
Hb y-in jity"? ny ^y nyisa np^aty ynisom ."yn inr k"? nn« v^i rsn "rN n"? ^a 

. n^apn "?sn iir 
.qtyya C11D laa Kin inou -n^ citqb' j""?! (na 
Nip-1) niDsyi D^TJ k'?o ntn nun n-n "jionK laa .my nnn ma pty^a n-'B^Dntro "r'tn (ea 
nnsn b^ nna'K'? omp nsu iiB^'rnB' "r"-!! .onsn '?b' isij"? ^ua Kin jxai ('3 .i^d nan 
Kin ]ity'?ni (n*'s v\'\d nan Kip-^i) mosyi CTja noiai ncai niya "j-^nno n'^in nTS'ty 

.ntyai niyo pn 

tiE6 Kin DDT1 ,('n ,?"» nan Kip-'i) "n^n"? -jb' jo pna nt jib^u noKB^ no"? tdt (^ 

.(K'y .t^p rnnnjD) n^Disa n'7Dj ndot loa .jno 
T1D1D1 D^KBinn noioD it qin "tk ('k .k"- 'rK'-n '-y) pnnoi yB'io 'n nnK '7*-i (k^ 

. pn "rao po"? on"? 'n" 
'n Toni KnK 'n noKn Koyo -ko r'?y D"'?n Ka"" k'?b' kt onKO^ noKB' no"? ton (a^ 
noiKi ei'Dio ^WDni ('t ,t^D '•) KnpM) ''T''7y 0""^ ixa" k'tb? Kin idd .-'jin "ra idd 
mt "3 i'te' nnt loa K^n inmysi ,i3do k'?k nnK"? i"? Ka nb njtsp yasK "bn t\nv 
, top yoE'D nn-'JB'B' .oi'ra k'?i nysi nyt pa j^ki .myro nspnj 
inn"'B' noiKi it'diob' loa idkji man "''y i"? Ka inyns pniaa' b''^^ .idk: '?"sb' "?": (ib 
DB'i /K .ynisD .nyaia .Koimn) "yn k'sio yniso^ nn:nn ^"sy nt "^ai .inao K'n 

• Oddj 
'j-'y'? '" mym I'tss B'n n'pn '"y .onsn "ry o-'Ka n^yjjn piayaB' niT'ayn yaB''? ton (n^ 

.iB's: nayin yaB'i pioan "ry "'tb'd E'nnoi 
IBID 13 Tpi,b '^KnE^'B' tsiE' nnnn "^a "jd bv na'?na nno ia^ :'a p'joy Kn^ao '"y (n^ 
nniD onKB' nnoaB' Kim maynn inn by nt noKoa B'DnB'o la^am ."mp'?'? 

.i"? rnnia 
*rsD nKDiB nan K-'Sin'? abw "na nis^n b^b'i dtb' n'apn opy^ : noxDn"? pia (i^ 

.(1003 DB'i /n ,3'"7 'n n'B'Kna) 
3*3 "y^nnon 'n nnB' ]bT\b '-yi : Dn-ntD ynisoa uniB? n-'j-nn "j^m .nimK '7*sb' ^"j (t^ 

.'131 nnino nimiK 
n'n"? nsDDB' ir'n ,yna 131b6 TyaanB' mina rvbi nai'?a .nDDa niB'a : D^'jE'n'? nns (nl? 

• B'K nans3 iKwn 6 mm 

n'''?nn) ni'rina nnana iib^ piDsnB' yin" naai .yaa i:ib6 .nana nibna : '^''sb' ya (fi*> 

Hb yjD uiB''? iipnn] . J^an ,'n 'a 'sin .yniso Koinan '"y .n^n"? bv vnm ('n .a"- 

. [V^ion , nan uiB^'ra nip'?m ni'rinj "j^s ""^iki ,"''? nKna 

•D^aa 1^ rKB' "Di ,KQiD .ynisD ."jy : noa faiE'n nyanx^ : nyn^n nnann"? piao (o 

.'131 n^sia nB'K b'" nan b'':i nt "b'ji .(3''y .n^o anna) 

.'131 nmyn onpyn on ny3nKi b"^ (kd 

. n"3iiyD "r's (3D 

UK D-'VE'n'? bi'j nt "s"?] D3^ "ry n3SD ;n3t n'jy^B' nya Dm*?? niDuy db'sjb' b"t (3D 

. ["^'lon .'131 niDuy DmniE'sn layt : ma tnonn 



51 msDunnyn 

pmm ,«Dis ^n" yr ib'k "^a nob nsdji Dtn pna: dk -lei^a .pmo yr nc'K "ra "y's (jd 

.«D0 Dy E^Tii Kin 

noKT npnn id: r" nt^^V '"^ r«ty irsn (3"y ,Ta) n'a «iw mt moy "o'Ttyn^a (ns 
irK n'laya nine stsb' "73 id: r' ntriy D'nya «Dtt anc' "ja a'y 'd ""raaa nt by 
naxjB' -npoa i^'sn -jd'? n-'nsy lyB''? ty: .satsD ir« piw at p dki ,id3 ]" nB'iy 
1U3Da mpD 0W2 Nsai k*? iris*?! "ndisd irs ins pntB' ar^ nra pjjDa na'?n i:nKD 
nD«3 «■? y:ij n"?! od'h k*? nt r« 'inB? kdbd irx ntn npntB' Kin biss'de' :iki ,nt 
fn pnr dn I'ap lanoa .nssoa noKC nan n«»iBa irso ud n"?!!! "rax . t^n^sa nt 
KKjaonB' Tyn"? cri .nia-'n -t- "ry anin tiN ma'-n n'' "py y:i3 no ,ndo irx dik 3im 
ray"? K^ ta« (K'y n'o .osy) "'raaai (a*y .t^o) n'si i-oa •'D'?B'n"'3 «sdj ipini nns 

. n«DiB 

. ry^ n-ibia nrx n-ne' nan nan '?'"> (ne 

.('n /« n'''?a) db^ o'Dja: man D"'ar tkb' n'-an nno n'rnB'n'? nai'?a (id 

T^im )K3 p^en iiia nt*?! ('a ,'« o^at) rjD'^ty inn 'yair m- i'?"'aK an nKity at (to 

.nmo «in riD*? ib^k .cd" incn'? "nd man lynBai 
tiiVi'TDi iriB'K b^ aau'Dt ac^ae lasy yuab mate «im ty-aBTi t^'?y ntyp atnty b'-\ (no 

. (n"y 'ay .i^ao nai in"-*?** "not .': ,'k raiy '^y) i'tb' 
on^maKty "jeo Dn"? n«3 n«t roi» ''^va'? rn d« rmaai rw onB' onxn ns nai'ra (bd 
n«sin «Btn:na new pt ,]n«BiB nya n-B'jn nu^ya isisi nn: ay Dn^nioa ib'bk^ 
. j'B'i .nynsa ppi*? D'Jan m: idb'K mx CBBf d« : '1 ,ym:{a 'a 
am mana n-'aan iB'jy: d« ^'m .a^roa B'?iy!?ia3 p B^a'?n rn^ b« bhbs :'7''m b": (s 
'-yi . a'jiy -biiaa ane' nmn nan "jy nays' bib'b an"? nxa nxt .aiB'aa a-at ,B"'j'?it 
/im« n:B'n •?« Tm2« iB'yB' ania^ n'a a'a •''rtya B'-na 

• irby ^« i:anT am :'?'sb' •?": («s 
. aiB KtnE' "tkb '?apB' natan may inmn Tan"? ^^-^p w^a- atn Koin'B'a nai'^a (as 
,ynn iib6 ^y B'iiy a^a K'n nana' B^emaa trsa k'jb' yni ,ynn iib''? «in vn -im (as 
'.nsa nan ma inyaa' 47 tnna b'v'7 ibk pi B'yaa"? nan y2 pbno ta^x la-'sn bax 
'm 'a n'- wipna Bmen "-ai "b*? B"ri« .ynisa ray"? «"?« nt na« «■? B'nnan ""yyai 

. nyns"? nan iiB'n a-Niiasn laa 'a nxna 

,'?"y'7 B'a myn ''y (ns 
my msis ^"'nB' nana E'aya nnea ;an itpa ib'K rya a-'B'aa wko B^'^B'n dk nai'pa (ns 
pnn •ryen "raK ^"y n'a niaa^ "'raaa pi xsaa "pn^an nx-a^ xaaan .nB'a n'^aai 

/"K "Emaai nia'?na nain "p-yy wbii/n laioa 

.iBtaa B'Bsy nsi'ra (is 

. B"''7B"'B' ny : (a^y /t) i'b maa*' -b^b^t '-y .aif laa sin bi'pd"' (ts 

.V^y'? 53 tnn '"yi .nnya -a^"? lyan nya anxn by nxaa^ nann «in (ns 

. an^by mysa ib'x amsn b'lt .lamys b'SB' b'a (bs 

Hipna naxB' nab tani ,nn« naa naxa «b pbt .nnpnaa natt at n^mn b^sty b-'a (p 

Kb nati at nBHQ nnB' p Nina' nb ynn ../by many ...nan mabn^ 'a .b-'^d 'i 

pine Kins' lanb naa Kin nnpnai ,"nasy -aaa iti nasy -asa it Kbx nnxa naKa 

.anyi 
nnsB bKiB'^ bE' DB'Ba Ksn Kb lyab mm ina ryannaa minn y^BB'n n'apn laiba («p 
"aKba iKnB' ira bKiE'" bE' jnae'a nms mm ina nyaE? mannb ira iB""Dm .kiibi 



""'J'' Tuno 50 

. D-'T yjn «•? ri3^ n-'h maam ^"2 (no 

. onTiipina n^V? o^una i«DQn *?« noi'ra .ns*? ii'^n nn^mpinni "j's (no 

. mr mny om "ej "ry nasixa )3bn abiy ^D^'?^ .'m ""ry pxa na"? "^'s '"rix (id 

.csTiNan '^BD yu^ 'pkie''' px"? mnan *?« nai'ra (to 

. in^ry nnptyan n-'nua jiyo 2inn ""x noiVa .mp^o 'jso '7's (no 

riK nnpiE« nimps (3'"' ,'n B"'nB') d^d "p^dk ?y n-'jra in na'N n^npn "ry Vt (ud 

. na nyap: ntyx "^ai nsi is "raa nxn 
n'on-'a) pis tyinoa noNty no ^"Ejy mm ,nn "yyi inn by nynp nxn idi'73 (y 
nxHB'C'' ,K"n nyo^Monyn'? msynno "'n3)n"'E'Nn3n nan nnoai (a""? .a^n pyr'?'?^'? 
B'''''y ,nn "ry D^om ,0^0 bu inim ,imn '7y mnni .oinn "?y o^oni .n^o '?y moiy 
nau n"? \mnD bax ,nn "^y nnaiy pxnty nau a'j n-'jcn nrnpoac' ym . nanxa 
an noKO x'y a"-" csy '-y "rax) a'y j"' •''?aaa ncn nrann a^a v^i 'ab^^r '^y .nan 
. r\''^ira ^B^yn ^p mnnaa cnnK'n naa ^Kre' a"? cc'? 'iNm (an noN nmn^ 

. yj: la nsn: '?''si:' b": (xy 

. nnji psD •''?a K-'n ninnxn n'?Dn (ay 

p)0Sin nx ntme' n'^-'s 'n snp^a nnjnn^ ixa ton jo^sna' pan r«i wxb't "t's (jy 

. nyi:{i nav "ry 't .'n pipana 
D'B'D n'^apnc' nnoiani D"'?aan om .nani nyns nao nDi'7a .n^oia r'?y a^t" b's (ny 
am nB'a^ '- ynm 'a 'sin KDinjna am jo^an nan"? mponi .naioa vpty Noinn by 
p irK n^apn bax inysai imx nnm a^baai t'abjo x^ao nn-'b may nsn xinsra 
cnno a"j tj-aix a^tyn nnyna iddjb' nnipon byi ''tms nnn anx ba' isu bao n"7n 
"a ''a-'ty', K^n mann nbanty noib ntyas 'k t anaa "y)} nisn "a"?] . t^oa xE^nn 
liB'bD ,iTBia rby pn" ipn"? c^ tabi 'p nixa '■? nsn: naicn nNCitr n^nnxn niNn 

. [b'lan ('a .I'a mac) ^ann p-nx 
n'-n nK^Ka iriTS'" rfB'Kna lawa inity niKtyn «in ,ynn it2 xan ib^n by cay naiba (ny 
lb «a ynn ns\n b'rn -abB' 'ni-i'^ pi ,yiT ynn ns'b na^yaa' mxB' "uan .naia my 
nmpon byi ,'"' .n^ba 'n n^B'^na '"y ,nbin nya nnan bab ix ihts'' nnx Ta ansb 

.T'^aa j^nn max si-m« nxnNyna on'-by n-'yna' 
.n'apnb lasy laroE' Dn« bab ruano n^nn n'^apn bB' wxian naiba (iy 

."nmaa bN Kiajia : a-bE'nb b": (ry 
naxB' nab ram .B'uy axa «in nB'x na^aa an nxT ana B*:ynb ■'iNna' namE' b"! (ny 
bnn -a-'si .an a^xn rn a'^B'JNn aa njiB'^naB' (T"a ymsa .nyaia nssin) xaimna 
buD) B'UK axa myaa'aa b^uk axa riBrni . an a-'^n an nnm a^B^ixna nr baanj 
. :''\in ,': .n*-' 'n xnpn '^y .niaipa nanna nsbj an NinB- ('sn nnn naian 
HB'aD nar H^n^ .nE'nai msa naa «\n manc' ,'3 .n"-- 'n Nipna naxB' nob lan (ay 

.intN nB'mai npnoi ina nc-nai anx bB' 
nE^« nB'an Nim anb nr n-'n nE?« baxa bB' ayo aiyab iB'pa b'm .lE'pa mr aya b's (a 
bKiB'" la-nn: D-jJixnan •'T bya' /n .n"'' 'n Nipna naxB* nob torn .anb nan n'n 
nanaa) Nnrb aab n^ni ainan nanb Tan a'a K^n nnt nbana' paa r^i .mana 

.('a .a"- 
pnaba nbanB'D nn nE'xnB' -"y b-'T mbeB^ai^ 'a .a""' 'n »^p^'^2 naxB' nob ion (nb 

."a-ana nanna x'n nn n^an sibn"' nn:iya nosy 
at Nin B^B"" ne^B'a n-aya 'i nxne' arn naiba .a-'an na^E'a nnxa ara man b's (aa 
. n'a— j^a 'x a-'ata mpai .B'bB'a nana nns nsn ibxa .mo: 



53 nisDU nnyn 

"inx n^D tins'? n^-m db' mnE6 i"? -iidk non 'rnN'? d:331 nxoiBa b'^3i dk Vn (3p 
: 'n ^I'B nuoi 'n .^d m nityoa N^n n ns*?;! nipoi , na "^-Na Nina' ^b ynuB' 

. nnxi rns "ra ^y 2"n 'm ndod bii i*? naK 
nan mo NDjn"? '^y .csa n'3N'7D n'7'2t5 Vy nnniNon D^tmaa insd: nnsn nann (xap 
«•? n^JB'^n nmpoa .(po: cc^i .Ki-'a N^mya^ntiiyn'? mc'-nD ^naa) n'B'x-ian 
."r^ats Nnua : N^y qiD b""? imnso '"y "raN .rn'^a nta Nsaa 
n""? nx-'ao mnuB' n^N"" ]a Dn:a 't b^ yiTn naxan"? tan la'^Dm ,'a .n^a mas (aap 
nxDiOD oniB'nB ^*y n':nam (maipa riKiaai naioa ninnxn naca '^y) nc-np 

. nasy"? nc'np rama 
.('N /a 'ax'^B) D'jnan rxTn msan oa'^'TN aman irL^-ba rnx Oap 
;K''y 'J naiD '"y .men is nam n'anp"? ]na nxaio dn n^Njnn t'a N'-n n^c" np'rna (nap 
'"ro ^:v \ff'^ irxa n"? n'^iya "^ax .a^n n's mnaty ;'3 .x'a Nnso ; N^y 'p omat 
nN*i3 pV .nam nriNaiBB' o^anpi men n"?}* nrx nn"? ina riKaiaty D^anp .n^anp 
Nine' ■pNiB'-'a k"?}* inaa nana irKB' nnxn n^am "aB'a Dcna"? b^ la^an nanB? "^ 
la^an riynty ':B'n nnnm nnx '?a^ laijy hn Naa"? a'a 'Ncm n^anp"? NBaV a^ino 
nnr nxn: rc'Nnm .nam msa na nsaia pm mE'n n'tn nrxDonpVina riNaiBB' 
'•\ N-ip-'ia '^y b2Vi . nam a-anp nKBiaa' xapy 'na ipoa o^pman "jaty mc^a pa: 
. Naa-' «^ nnnN"? n^acm ,Naa^ msa na"? n:iB'Nn m^as : i^as 
n"?! n'7iy^ 3n:n « msaty n'apn nis o^man 'rmja n'^aatr ncnpn nam "jaa b"! (nap 
n^apn ^:b'?d pnx «T^n3B' nsTBg :'i i^a 't nipm '"y .n^B'an ma^ ny ona Vaan 
riBna n irw nnnn ^a qiD ny r^ae k"?! laaa nrt nr«B' irn ntynan i"? n^n^ji nar 

."nan 
.'nnnB^n n B'-'B' mb^: nra «n m*?:- k"? napn^ T^a .a"^ xnaan nan"? jra (lap 
, ntn D'?iyn •'m'? iN^an vaNB- : N"'a .a^a xysa xaa '■'y (rap 
pi . njap ]'a (n^ira i^Tiija a"' .n^ap D'<'?nn '"y .n^ra) n'jnj r^ irims"? Naaa (nap 
pi .'mjian man"? r'^x^ : a"" ^i^yo 'a sncna mas xnaaai ,N''y 'd maa-a xm 
'N «nB?ns ma« Nnaoa irsac' nai ."Naa'^B' nma "ran mjiaa^ : 'i ,'n nmaB-a 
I'ms-n n^nna nr '?y n^yn naa ."n'man n"?! n:cpn n'rwan mmx*?!^ 'a ci^yo 

. n'^iya in n-'w: yaB'aa n'^nac 

."laND wmNi rnx ins"^ :'n ri'^yo de' .nibd '^y .oNn"? i<b^ asn"? jNa iiiaa "mpa^ (cap 
Bp'?N ^nNBBJi '?''Nm nnx nax"' ab^ NaB-" ■\b nnnran o^nan i'tn'j pT nai'^a ("rp 

.(3«"« ci^yo DC Niaa) -"Ta "':i'ra masy 
^anc i'?a'7 1'r^ax Naa- n"? ('n .x'a N-ip^) raya bv^ Nnpa xme' "jnjn jnan b"-) (x'rp 
^ya B'naBB' •'a'rB'nm na-'E'a -]bm iB"'anE' Tyn"? ]iaai .maa "jaa i"? Naa"? n^a^n 
."n-aya Nat aNno" Kb^, obpm Djnna lai (r^a B'-i nnj '^y) bni ina mr raya 
^naB' nti . b'bb "yya ."rya n'B'naa (N^y 'si a^y a''a maa^) "baam db' Nnaon bax 
tn (J^y .n^d) a^a ns^a -a'jB'iTn nana Nsr I'ra'? nbb^ r^^'^n bnr^-' b2\ arnn 

.nna"? lanpni r^^i^ "^^ib" '?3 ^'"' "'i^'J'^ ^° 
nana ^b'tb^it '"y .nma arnn ina b2H n'B'j'? KaB"? )b moxB' "rnj pa"? aoia nr dj (a*?? 
»Nr 'n max nx-B'j pi" 'i IOT i3 ^''i'in maa"? pa nbb^e^ ma :(N''y ,'0 a^a 

. mm nama r« lo' 
Dan «m na^B' nxna nr ^a^i ."ranp "ran naB' oan^ t"^ .a'a ;bp nyia Nnaoin '^y {ibp 

. pan ""a'ra inb onaxa nmna "^nj 
hb K^aa ^b ma''7n u"? N^aa ^a naB^ nan ('3 'ay 'n) a^a mana ^b'^b'it '^y {ibp 



■"' 3 " n n n a 52 

.D-'n'? IN D^na'7 nmnn im: nriK "d'? n'apn"? noN 'rNnty '?b' tnac: nmaa* mD*n 
'"yi .317 'oy n^DS 'n 'sin D''?nn B^mo '^y ,bi<r^^ Vy n^n "acj n'^apn fc:n n^o 

.('o .n^D n^'^nn) nrn piDsn !?y omna n'j 

. N'D myn "r^y"? '"y (ap 
1D3 nno cpmno maixn -\nm cana n'p'piJO n'7D5:'3 Dm'7:3 I'rtyDa 'rxnty"' '':3 (3p 

ny bv in'^DHB' n'apn"? 'r'^Dna Kim /n'^an asy^a "r^s ■''71x1 .psoa n'raaty 'an (np 

. nptm nbi-ii "nn bxnc" 
D'a rsn nrn : a^a rnn 'n nn^'a "y^y^ naNB' laa .isuaa' n-'aa n'-i'm anxn nrn (np 
D'''?a'7aBn ra^aa iNC-'n'? mN*? i"? nn^^n n"? nn-'a anx"? i"? nana mnty -s'ti ,'m 

.r^n riK 
.'131 "DHN nr-'B' 123 &^ B^jsja Bn-''7inaa d^b'j^ : n"-* ,'a m: '"y (ip 
/3) a^D m: "a'jE'n'' a": '"yi .saa m"? mna an j^a an"? m i^a : N"y a"" m: '"y (rp 

. amna B'an ty-i b'nbd a-'an u^^ ta'o (^"5? 
nyaB''? m: min mas na ■'jsa :(a''y .n""? mj) n'sa 'n nan"? a-'juaa ja'-sn nan (np 
■^y naon «nnty ■'na B'-a'' nyaa' nNao xnn nmn max na ^pi na ^"jna' "jsa 
-UB' VaK ^a'rc'iTa nsb: n"? TNa 'n '^b' nt laxaB' ym .nsin"? nna^ia nyB'a n'?ya 
pDB "ra ]''« ""Ji (n'y 'ay .b^'kbt nssin) i^as nan in^'rN nnaa aya nnN nana 
Via"? nr n^n ■''?ini bai^" y\ii "':a 'tb' nn« mpaa n'?^ "baaa B'ariB'n n"? la^sna^ 
mna in"* •'a piBsnB' Tyn"? t"is' • n'?3 naaan '?3 irja"? r« '"^'^'^ .ti^ •'a'rB'iTa 
Kain:n ''y .nnjaB' mnai xao an "ry b'jsix nB33 Bnn: ('n .n"" arx) «aaa 

, N^y 'a nnji :"- •'raE' ,'a 'sin 
. nar N'-n nn nrn: "O"" 't nnx bt 3"'Tn bn ib'itd (ap 
,n'3) «''D mama ■'B'jB'n-ai .rana n^aa i^ana n^ana' nB'N b:i : a^y n^B nnj '^y {-'p 
.l^aiya n-'n'ri ymvQ n-'anB' nB'N "ja : -inN nBi:a ('ayn tjiBa N'y 

, ally myn '?"'y'? '"y (N-p 
. nnya nisnia r^B' '?«it5'"' n^a myas "ry a"- ,'n B'^nB'a ainn rv^ iB'"n "^^Tn (a^p 
{ymaa a'a '^yi "la-'pni r'?'SJ«3 H'^i itbo Tn'?wai^ : "p'jn "ry aiann '-y 

. BB' .B'^nB' 

'n ,'3 n'jnp ainan ""sy Nini .npan"? iibn n'?yaB' n*? ynr nnj nasy nxsia bn {yp 
. Bunna bb' '^y .n'jya'? miBNB' a-'a'^a b'^bbti bv iB'mB' .pana pirn*? nyi 

.UNaan n'tb' •''73a yi^n x^ky 'iBi'73 {I'p 
«in nVs '?3N .'131 tn'rn "a^aa cin... B'-NBa a^an ncan :'i .'3 m: n^B'an'? pis (lap 
-B'an p^ns N-'n n3'7nm ^kbb' n-'s'? pn B'-xaa a-'an- i'^nb' n3'7nn n:: pais la^snB' 

.r'7in in'?n 
in'''7N ma 3*^3 '•'yi a^s myn '^■'y'? '"y ,m3a n'^^nB' bib'b n^'ry nxa nann -iai'73 (rap 
.nariina nar nB?y3 mina3in3B' na bv m3y :(a''y 'ay .B-^xan riKSin) i^aa n3T 

.in BN nnan na-'sp : 55 mn 'n nna' 'r^y'? '-y (vp 
rata naiBTi nnB'yi mm BN :(B''y 'ay .B^'xannxsm) I'^aa nan in^"?}* -ns '"y (n'^p 

. nnia ar ny nnptna x^n nn in"? bni n^a nms 
nn3 '■'y . nnnE'a ar "jaa pna^ nans yi3p nBi n"? r^«i nnsi n3nB':B' n^a b"i (a^p 
'B'lTa B'smaxn wtbi "niB'aB'n rai n-'inBO npnia nrn"? na^ns a-'ayai^ 't .'n 
nax ""paaa "raN .nai n*? i^nb' nB'sa ntB' (a"y a^M a^y «"') ■''?aa3i (s^y .aiia) 
nniD ^yb^ la-'am ,nnna r^y ii'^^^ ^b^ nann lana ">a'7B'iTai .nnna'? pn ntB^ 

.-aVB'iTa man 



55 niBDunnyn 

'>m pip3 BTns !?33 3iBn nine' n^apn -aa'? ku*? onx"? mnt i^xty K-n its-'en n:ii3 (nop 
nniK HipB' .-itra pnpn nancj d« bax ,r\bii nytra nn-'na' idd r5?3 x'n nonan d« 
•'in 1^ ")Di« nn-'n-ao nmx nre' «^i na-'ya XTity n^Tj "ra b'^an ^a by .^ub^ n- by 
.('n /'D NOP Kaa xnaoin) nbnjn nytya d'tc'd nn-n^ao nm« ny^ dni i^:b'? nbu' 
KbD'' n^apn laiba ,n:is-ia djut ntry^ ciisn"? n\nn dn on^janp naipn b^sty ■?': (bdp 
/n /a ma« '-y .psn"? on-'jaip lanpna' loa oa"? psi 
.b«nK^ ley inat naic' irx n^apnty b'li 'iai O'Duy ]nat b'sc "?': (Jp 
.-NnD inr bna na nn"? inw n'apn b'n (sap 
; 'j ,t'a 'T Nnp"-! '■>y , abn mmn by Kbx nsa nbiyn r« Qbiyb noxB' nob idt (aip 
n'B Nor ^Dbtrn" ; tiioa i"" ,m '- .db' canin Noinan (:'" 'a 'sin) nb nb saimn 

.(a'y .n'D) 



-»;•' nuriD 54 

Y»^ (3'D 'Dy '3 's:n) e^o •''rtyo Ennca mann"? m:':2 on la-sn nam . "im>Dn 
. Drn imx : n'-i msDina a^y i'p mama ^baa a'a '"yi .D-pn^a nsDiB 
Kipj no"? :('a 'a 'sin) n Nain:nn nan"? tan jB-'sm .n'piya n-tyy 't^sb' pso Va i"'k (rf^p 
n'apn"? n'na «'?« naoD nyia -Tna rx n'^iyn... nuanpn "raD nar'py n-hb' n'^iy nosy 
,ntn tnnn niia by nioyj r-kyayi .ir'?y Nine n'^ap'? n'ny N'-hb' nViy nxnp: la"? 

.niaaipn ban n'jiya n'?iyn nx ntry n*apn 
.D^'pya tisia naip: nr« dk no'^iy nj^K n'riyne' idn p"?! nais •':a-ip on m'ny an (ibp 
naTD"? (a"y .k^d) I'd «ina 'in Knp^Dsai .t'ej 'i Nnp""i .N'y T'd 'i xnp-'DS '-y {fyp 

. n-'tyx'? mpDa 
rbiy p-ip "yy iniBme' (I'ls ,n'j D^'?nn) caia i^na d^h'^n n^aa pioan bn idi (nbp 

. N'y .n^a db' •''raaai (K'y /o) a"D niD wo^' "obB'TT' '•■y /aoiDa nrr^nB' T'onn 
'7B' iDB' bbn-' i<b\ff na 'n"? n'riy n'jk n'^iy 'n"? Dn« idk- n'?e' iidke' no"? tdi (o^ 
.iNnNynis on^'jy TynB' moipoai .a*"' ,'k 't n^B'sna I'c nnan ""laD '•'y , n"apn 
a-'np-'E'aB' ipM taaa oyo nn-'is «ijp !?« nnx : la x-'n ita^Dn •'nan naia nr ''£f?^ 
HiB'Da Kso: uip niaa "ry on Koaon .loty b'rn"' nbi i:ip maa "ry on ^n^ pip onx 

lanpB' mpD oiE^a ksw «•? ta« . naaE^a noNity ps"? •'•an nuanp ^"y 'ujao n^apn (op 

. nt Kon by nsaD 
nbyo bB' «D3 njia iipd «in ntots bB' KoaE^ .""D htb? .wnb^aea nDNB? nab ton (Kap 
.TKn iKaa i-x bax .biar MnpiE' rpna iinj nbya be' p'enaB? nas a'y a*" nr:raj 
jT-a Ti-ja n:3 pioEjn by nan b^-yb nnbpaa djb' ""r •'jsb nn^'n nwrn nnannaf 

Ob bpr 
. o-'BbB' K'-aa DibB' «inB' •'a : 'n .b'd 'n Knp-'ia tiyaa' 'n ""nanb tan (aap 
."niK^ jB^'sn ana "n^yn^ nipaaB' Kb« /r /n B'^h-'b^ ainan pB'ba tnx (:bp 
ruaB'a ib^B« sainn ba '3 /n 'n «np-i ('i DBn:n : «"•« 'a 'sin) wnp^'i Kain:n '-"y (nap 

. Nam Nnpj 
»1N : '3 .n'D 'n Nnp-ia naxB' laa ma pnnnnb tisi i^dn niianp anannb djb' b"n (nap 
'•■y .nbBTii mnriB'a nnn «bB' aias' nnin-' 'n nan "q by nti .nioN man:i o'-nnja 

. maipa naaai i'" ,'a pbin NriDDin 
riT by laiab rNtyi r"i n-'a r^ mpa baa 'i:iip rnsB'a xaab nna dnb' b^na' b": (lap 
nab ta-ib laa nbaa E'anB'n la^DnE' nsnai I's riia r^iy '"X? .i^mb naxjB' mca 
'B^n- ''y , ann nnpnaa nan e'" nax^B' laba npm ann nau ibxa mun*^* naxB' 
ba na: Kin "nnoj nna laa^ -iBNan] . K"y .a^a db' •'baaai (a'^y .N^a) a^s ann: 
nn: naiba ,"icn3 nnai aa^ )pnb tis b'in E'lTsn -sbB' -b nxn: labi .]wbn "pm 
. [b^ian .B'inp •'nax Tinna Kb •'a ('a ,'i ar«) airian iiB'ba nan d"p xbi 
biT3 ]2-\p N-aanB' a^'aan ibE'aB' nab ^a^Dn piai .oyaa msnb r« ayana n-aa b's (tap 
Kin m2;Di btJB* nbr^a rna rby aa'TB' pabB' bB' inyn canb nsiTk^ loa Kin ••nn 
Nain^n a"3 '"yi (I'^a 'a 'sin) max xainan ,(:''y,3'':) j^s naia 'E'n" '^y .nu-'ap 
NjiB'-iD Nana N-isoai .aiba nnxb bitjn Kb \2'\p a"'npnb riB'pa d« ('a ,'a 'sin) is 
B'^' B31 abn by bapnai ns- nrn B'n'sn ••a tix] .binn nx N^sinb uanp : 'a '^yo 'n 
-isa "ayane Ta^a b'SB' a^'aanb nB'SN -n riNT baa .tnnn fiiaa xaB' naa nya ib 
b'b nrniNni .B^'n bB' uj-n 'na^ •'oabB' iinnxn nixa nsB'in BiE'n "a B'aya naa 
."ayaa nisnb r« nya nan B3^ : b^s ^biKi .aya nban la •'"aa nipnna I'^ni 

. [b»ian 



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